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Museo Arqueológico de Florencia

Museo Arqueológico de Florencia

El Museo Arqueológico de Florencia, o "Museo Archeologico nazionale di Firenze", ofrece una colección diversa de antigüedades. La colección más impresionante y completa es probablemente la exhibición de arte etrusco del museo arqueológico, que incluye la mundialmente famosa estatua de la Quimera de Arezzo que data del 400 a. C.

Museo Arqueológico de Historia de Florencia

Tras su inauguración en 1870, el museo estaba ubicado en los edificios del Cenacolo di Fuligno - "La Última Cena de Fuligno" - en el antiguo convento de Sant’Onofrio, o las Monjas de Foligno. En ese momento, solo estaba formado por restos romanos y etruscos.

La colección creció y, a partir de 1880, el museo se trasladó a su edificio actual en el Palazzo della Crocetta, que es un palacio que fue construido en 1620 para la princesa María Maddalena de 'Medici.

Las primeras colecciones básicas fueron las colecciones familiares de los Medici y Lorena. Durante la primera mitad del siglo XVIII, se formó la colección egipcia, y en 1887 se agregó un nuevo museo sobre los etruscos, aunque desafortunadamente fue destruido por las inundaciones en 1966.

Museo Arqueológico de Florencia hoy

Hoy en día, el museo es uno de los más antiguos de Italia y documenta la historia de Florencia desde su fundación en el 59 d.C. Su colección de artefactos y arte es responsable del fenómeno europeo de los museos de nacimiento como instituciones estatales que documentan e informan el pasado y el futuro de la nación.

Alberga varios restos importantes, como la "Quimera", una estatua votiva de bronce encontrada en 1553. También hay estatuas de Arringatore y Minerva, así como urnas de terracota y travertino de Volterra, y jarrones de cerámica griega con figuras negras.

El Museo Arqueológico de Florencia también exhibe artefactos de la época del Antiguo Egipto, Romano y Griego. Su colección egipcia antigua es de particular importancia y se dice que es la más significativa de Italia después del Museo Egizio de Turín.

Entre sus más de 14.000 artefactos se encuentran una serie de elementos notables, como estelas, momias, ushabti, amuletos y estatuillas de bronce.

La barroca Villa Corsini a Castello, cerca de Florencia, forma una sección separada del museo, que exhibe predominantemente esculturas romanas y etruscas antiguas.

Ubicado en la impresionante Piazza Santisima Annunziata, el museo está a poca distancia de varias atracciones famosas y pintorescas. Estos incluyen la Catedral de Florencia, la fuente de Neptuno, el Palazzo Vecchio y la Galería de los Uffizi.

Llegar al Museo Arqueológico de Florencia

Desde el centro de Florencia, el museo está a 15 minutos a pie por Via dei Servi y Via del Proconsolo. En coche, se tarda más (23 minutos) a través de la carretera SS67, y también hay varios servicios de autobús de conexión que tardan unos 30 minutos y salen cada 10 minutos aproximadamente.


Florencia arqueológica

Como muchos otros museos florentinos, el Museo Arqueológico proviene de las colecciones de las familias Medici y Lorena que se exhibieron inicialmente junto con otros tesoros en la Galería de los Uffizi y se trasladaron al Palazzo della Crocetta, la actual sede del Museo, en 1888 ( el edificio fue erigido en 1620 por Giulio Parigi). El núcleo principal de la colección se centra en la civilización etrusca que interesó en particular a Cosimo, el mayor de la familia Medici. Pero "fue el Gran Duque Cosme I quien reunió las colecciones existentes en el siglo XVI, aunque posteriormente fueron ampliadas por sus sucesores (y en particular por el cardenal Leopoldo). Con el tiempo la colección se fue enriqueciendo con obras famosas como la Quimera de Arezzo, la Minerva de Arezzo y el Orador. La colección fue luego continuada por la familia Lorena que agregó la extraordinaria colección de piezas egipcias, además de agregar nuevas piezas a la sección etrusca, que fue organizada por series y estudiada por los estudiosos de la Corte de Lorena. También durante el siglo XIX continuaron las adiciones con importantes obras como el Sarcófago de las Amazonas y la Larthia Seianti. Fue en esta época cuando se creó un nuevo tramo de topografía etrusca y donde las esculturas etruscas y los bronces pequeños y grandes fueron Además de las obras mencionadas, vale la pena reservar un tiempo para visitar la sección dedicada a la espléndida variedad de obras etruscas. wels.

El Museo Egipcio, que ocupa el segundo lugar después del famoso museo de Turín, ocupa algunas de las salas del Museo Arqueológico. El primer grupo de antigüedades egipcias se reunió en el siglo XVII para incluir también piezas que habían sido coleccionadas por los Medici, aunque fue aumentado significativamente durante el siglo XVIII por Leopoldo II, Gran Duque de Toscana, quien compró nuevas colecciones y financió, junto con Carlos X, rey de Francia, una expedición científica a Egipto en los años entre 1828 y 1829. La expedición fue dirigida por Jean Francois Champollion, el célebre erudito e intérprete de jeroglíficos y por Ippolito Rosellini de Pisa, quien pronto se convertiría en padre de estudios egipcios en Italia y amigo y discípulo de Champollion. Después del regreso de la expedición, los numerosos objetos recolectados durante la expedición y durante las excavaciones de sitios arqueológicos o comprados por comerciantes locales, se dividieron a partes iguales entre Florencia y el Louvre. El Museo Egipcio de Florencia se estableció oficialmente en 1855. En 1880, al erudito egipcio piamontés Ernesto Schiaparelli, que se convertiría en el director del Museo Egipcio de Turín, se le asignó la tarea de trasladar y organizar las antigüedades egipcias en la ubicación actual. que es también la sede del Museo Arqueológico. Schiaparelli aumentó adecuadamente las colecciones del Museo con objetos encontrados durante sus campañas personales de excavación y comprados en Egipto antes de su traslado final a Turín. El último grupo de obras adquiridas por el Museo Egipcio de Florencia incluye piezas donadas al Estado por contribuyentes privados e instituciones científicas. Hoy el Museo exhibe más de 14.000 piezas, expuestas en nueve salas y dos almacenes. Las salas de exposición han sido totalmente renovadas. El antiguo trazado de Schiaparelh se ha sustituido ahora por uno nuevo dispuesto, cuando es posible, de acuerdo con un orden cronológico y topográfico. La colección comprende material que va desde la prehistoria hasta la época de la Copta, con varios grupos de estelas, jarrones, amuletos y piezas de bronce de diferentes edades. Las piezas más destacables son algunas estatuas que datan de la época de Amenofi III, el carro de la XVIII dinastía, el pilar de la tumba de Seti I, la copa de Fayence con boca cuadrada y las pertenencias de la nodriza de la hija de Faraón Taharqa, el retrato de mujer de Fayum, la colección de tejidos pertenecientes a la Edad Copta y un importante grupo de moldes de tiza que datan de finales del siglo XIX .. de los Museos y Galerías de Florencia y alrededores (Apt - Florencia)

Museo Arqueológico . Más información .. Museo Arqueológico


Museo Arqueológico de Florencia - Historia

La llamada Carta della Catena
Florencia en el siglo XV

El museo, ubicado desde 1956 en el antiguo convento de las Hermanas Oblatas, exhibe planos, pinturas, grabados o grabados que documentan la historia y el aspecto de Florencia desde sus orígenes hasta la época en que la ciudad se convirtió en capital de Italia. Uno de los documentos más importantes y extraordinarios es el llamado plano & quotdella catena & quot, una perfecta reproducción 19 del original de finales del siglo XV conservado en el Museo Friedrich de Berlín. Las otras secciones exhiben pinturas al óleo y témpera que representan hechos históricos y escenas típicas de los siglos XVIII y XIX.

Vale la pena detenerse para observar de cerca las grandes lunetas de Giusto Utens (1599), dedicadas a las principales villas de los Medici, y la famosa colección de grabados de Giuseppe Zocchi (1744), dedicada a las iglesias, palacios y villas florentinas. . También merecen una visita los grabados de Telemaco Signorini (1835-1901).

Una sección del museo está reservada a las obras de Giuseppe Poggi (1811-1901), arquitecto y urbanista florentino, y a sus dibujos y proyectos para la ampliación y transformación de la ciudad después de 1865.


Palazzo Vecchio

En 1299 los florentinos decidieron construir un palacio para albergar las organizaciones gubernamentales de la república, además debería haber sido un edificio representativo del poder de la república y del pueblo. Arnolfo di Cambio, el arquitecto del Duomo de Florencia y la iglesia de Santa Croce comenzó esta construcción sobre las ruinas del Palazzo dei Fanti y el Palazzo dell'Esecutore di Giustizia en Piazza della Signoria. Como sucedió con las grandes construcciones de esa época, se necesitaron varias generaciones para completar la obra, sufriendo modificaciones y ampliaciones.

Cosimo I de Medici ordenó una reestructuración y decoración del edificio durante el siglo XVI para convertirlo en su residencia. Así, adquiere su aspecto actual y se convierte en Palacio Ducal. Más tarde, Cosimo I de Medici trasladó su residencia al Palacio Pitti y el Palazzo Ducale fue nombrado Palazzo Vecchio, convirtiéndose en las oficinas gubernamentales y el lugar donde se guardaban los objetos de valor.

Cosimo I ordenó la construcción de un corredor que conectara el Palacio Pitti con las oficinas administrativas, actualmente la Galería Uffizi, y el Palazzo Vecchio para poder moverse de un lugar a otro con más comodidad y privacidad. Este corredor se llamó Corredor Vasari.

¿Qué es el Palazzo Vecchio hoy en día?

Durante su larga historia, el palacio ha sido llamado de diferentes maneras, su nombre original era Palazzo della Signoria que fue reemplazado por Palazzo Vecchio cuando la corte de los Medici se mudó al Palacio Pitti. Actualmente el Palazzo Vecchio alberga el Museo dei Ragazzi y aquí también encontramos las oficinas del Ayuntamiento y la Sala del Cinquecento que actualmente conserva su uso original, aquí se realizan audiencias y eventos especiales.

Curiosidades del Palazzo Vecchio

¿Sabías que el Palazzo Vecchio se encuentra en la Piazza della Signoria (Plaza de la Signoria), que es la plaza más importante de Florencia? Esta maravillosa plaza se encuentra entre la Piazza del Duomo y el río Arno. El Palazzo Vecchio es el edificio más característico de la plaza, en su entrada podemos apreciar las esculturas de Adán y Eva, la copia del David de Miguel Ángel y Hércules y Caco. También forman parte de este lugar la Loggia dei Lanzi, la Fuente de Neptuno y la estatua ecuestre de Cosimo I.

¿Sabías que en el Palazzo Vecchio podemos encontrar una serie de pasajes ocultos? Estos pasajes secretos fueron construidos por los Medici para escapar de sus enemigos o para almacenar objetos de valor. Por ejemplo, en la Stanza delle Mappe (La sala de mapas) está el mapa de Armenia, detrás del cual hay una entrada que conduce al camerino de la duquesa Bianca Capello, que fue la segunda esposa de Francesco I.

¿Por qué visitar el Palazzo Vecchio?

El Palazzo Vecchio (Palacio Viejo) es uno de los símbolos más famosos de la ciudad de Florencia y sin duda es una parada que no puede faltar en tu visita a esta ciudad cuna del Renacimiento italiano. El Palazzo Vecchio fue construido en forma de castillo y con una torre de 94 metros de altura entre 1299 y 1314. Su función era convertirse en residencia y lugar de trabajo de los funcionarios de la república, por lo que cuenta con varias estancias, cada una con una personalidad única. . Una de las primeras salas que visitará cuando ingrese al Palazzo Vecchio es el "Salone dei Cinquecento" (Sala de los Quinientos), una gran sala con una extensión de 54 metros de largo por 22 metros de ancho y 17 metros de alto, por lo que es la habitación más grande de Florencia.

¿Cómo visitar el Palazzo Vecchio (Palacio Viejo)?

El Palazzo Vecchio es el símbolo del poder civil de la ciudad de Florencia desde hace más de siete siglos, por este motivo, te aconsejamos que descubras su historia siguiendo las explicaciones de un guía experto.

Puede visitar el edificio comprando un boleto de entrada al Palazzo Vecchio en combinación con la Audioguía de la ciudad de Florencia con entrada prioritaria.

Hay muchas opciones para visitarlo: desde la clásica visita al Palazzo Vecchio hasta la visita guiada al Infierno de Dan Brown, que te permitirá descubrir el aspecto más misterioso del Palazzo della Signoria (Palacio del Señorío). Evidentemente, también se recomienda la visita con guía privado. Los itinerarios propuestos son diferentes y todos se pueden personalizar, por ejemplo, la visita privada basada en el Infierno de Dan Brown y los Jardines de Boboli, te mostrará todos los lugares descritos en el famoso libro.

Otras atracciones de la zona

En los alrededores del Palazzo Vecchio hay otros monumentos que merecen ser visitados, entre ellos:

La Loggia de los Lanzi también conocida como Loggia della Signoria, un pequeño museo al aire libre en el lado del Palazzo Vecchio, aquí podemos ver varias obras como el Secuestro de los Sabinos y el Perseo con la cabeza de Medusa.

Aquí también encontramos la Galería de los Uffizi construida por el arquitecto Giorgio Vasari en 1560 por orden de Cosimo I de Medici para albergar las oficinas de trece gremios artísticos y magistrados. El último piso de este edificio se asignó a las colecciones privadas de obras de arte de los Medici.

Al otro lado del Palazzo Vecchio se encuentra la Fuente de Neptuno conocida por los florentinos como "il biancone", esta fuente fue construida por Bartolomeo Ammannati y sus discípulos. Junto a ella, está la estatua ecuestre de Cosme I, obra realizada en 1594 por Giambologna.


El mito: Aquiles, Thetis y la guerra de Troya

La decoración se extiende por toda la superficie a través de una serie de bandas horizontales. Las figuras están dibujadas con gran detalle y la mayoría están identificadas por inscripciones también hay firmas de autores, a saber, los del pintor alfarero Kleitias y el ceramista Ergotimos.

Las figuras están pintadas de negro sobre fondo rojo, y los detalles interiores se realizaron con finas líneas incisas. En total hay siete secciones narrativas, cada una de las cuales pertenece a un mito en particular. El hilo común entre los episodios es la historia de Aquiles, el héroe por excelencia. La escena principal se encuentra a lo largo de la sección central y ocupa toda la circunferencia de la embarcación.

Es el mas famoso boda en toda la mitología griega. La novia y el novio son Thetis, la diosa del mar, y Peleo, un mortal. De su unión nace Aquiles. Este es el episodio que inspiró toda la epopeya homérica. Durante la fiesta de bodas, Hera, Atenea y Afrodita comienzan a discutir sobre quién es la más bella. Paris elige a Afrodita y se gana el amor de Helen, la mujer más bella del mundo. De su amor surge la Guerra de Troya.


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Museo florentino para exhibir artefactos del sitio arqueológico de FSU

Por: Kathleen Haughney | Publicado: 1 de junio de 2017 | 10:00 am | CUOTA:

Artículos que se exhibirán en la exhibición “Wells of Wonders: New Discoveries at Cetamura del Chianti” en el Museo Arqueológico Nacional de Florencia.

Nuevos descubrimientos cuentan la historia de la región italiana de Chianti

Una nueva exposición que se inaugurará en junio en el Museo Arqueológico Nacional de Florencia contará con casi 300 elementos antiguos excavados en el sitio arqueológico Cetamura del Chianti, operado por la Universidad Estatal de Florida.

La exposición revela la historia antigua de la región de Chianti, dijo Nancy de Grummond, profesora de clásicos M. Lynette Thompson y directora de excavaciones en Cetamura del Chianti, un sitio arqueológico en las colinas de la región de Chianti.

"He querido hacer una exhibición como esta desde que me convertí en el director", dijo de Grummond. "Mi sueño se está haciendo realidad".

El espectáculo, “Wells of Wonders: New Discoveries at Cetamura del Chianti”, se abre el 9 de junio y se extenderá hasta el 30 de septiembre de 2017.

Casi 300 elementos extraídos de dos pozos que se encuentran en el sitio exploran la historia de las civilizaciones etrusca, romana y medieval.

Si bien la mayoría de los artículos son herramientas o artefactos (se recuperaron 14 cántaros, cuencos y baldes de bronce), también hay algunas exhibiciones ecológicas. Los investigadores encontraron una gran serie de semillas de uva que datan del 300 a. C. sugiriendo que el área estaba llena de viñedos incluso entonces. Los visitantes de la exposición podrán ver un video que explica el proceso de excavación y cómo la búsqueda de estas semillas iluminó la historia de una de las regiones vinícolas más populares del mundo.

Aunque algunos elementos se recuperaron en forma perfecta o casi perfecta, a menudo solo se han excavado fragmentos o fragmentos de un elemento. Para brindar a los visitantes una mejor visión de cómo se ve un artefacto dado, los fragmentos se colocarán junto a una recreación impresa en 3D del objeto.

Un mango de bronce con remates de cabeza de animal y un accesorio de mango & # 8220fleur-de-lis & # 8221 descubierto en el sitio arqueológico Cetamura del Chianti operado por la Universidad Estatal de Florida.

Cetamura del Chianti es un sitio arqueológico que fue descubierto en 1964 por un arqueólogo vocacional italiano llamado Alvaro Tracchi y ha sido investigado por la Universidad Estatal de Florida desde 1973. Desde 1983, de Grummond ha realizado la excavación del sitio que ha demostrado ser un tesoro. tesoro de información sobre el asentamiento etrusco durante múltiples épocas.

Los investigadores tardaron años en llegar al fondo de uno de los dos pozos de la propiedad. Este pozo se corta profundamente en el lecho de roca y el agua se filtra por los lados. El segundo pozo, que era más accesible, es más tradicional y tiene muros de mampostería. Cada uno tiene aproximadamente 6 pies de diámetro, por lo que cuando los arqueólogos descienden al pozo, deben llevar un aparato de respiración y equipo de iluminación.

Solo bajan por turnos de unas dos horas.

Durante todo el proceso de excavación, de Grummond ha contado con la ayuda de estudiantes de pregrado y posgrado de la Universidad Estatal de Florida a través de Programas Internacionales, estudiantes y colegas de Studio Arts College International (SACI) y arqueólogos italianos de la firma ICHNOS: Archeologia, Ambiente e Sperimentazione, quienes diseñaron la excavación de los dos pozos.

Los ex estudiantes graduados de FSU Laurel Taylor, ahora profesor en la Universidad de Carolina del Norte en Asheville, y Charles Ewell, quien enseña en los programas de Florence para la Universidad de Nueva York y la Universidad de Syracuse, han continuado trabajando en el sitio y también han traído a sus estudiantes. .

Ken Kobré, un profesor de fotoperiodismo jubilado y ex alumno de la FSU que formó parte de la clase inaugural en el Centro de Estudios de Florencia de la FSU en 1966, fotografió todos los artículos para el catálogo de la exposición.

Para obtener más información sobre el trabajo de De Grummond, visite la página de Facebook del programa para ver fotos de la excavación.


los Museo Arqueológico Nacional de Florencia está situado dentro de un antiguo palacio en Piazza Santissima Annunziata construido en honor a la princesa María Maddalena de 'Medici. Inaugurado en 1870, a lo largo de los años ha aumentado considerablemente colecciones y obras en su interior, convirtiéndose hoy en el sitio que contiene lo mejor de excavaciones de toda la Toscana. los Museo Arqueológico Nacional de Florencia cuenta con numerosos hallazgos romanos, etruscos, egipcios y griegos, encontrados en tumbas o procedentes de tesoros de Medici y Lorenzo. Junto a estos, también hay vestigios de las culturas Paleovenet, Villanoviana, Alta Edad Media y Anatolia Antigua, así como vestigios del Renacimiento y obras de bronce inspiradas en culturas antiguas.

Sección etrusca del Museo Arqueológico Nacional de Florencia

En la sección etrusca de la Museo Arqueológico Nacional de Florencia Destaca la obra maestra de la "Quimera d’Arezzo", un bronce que representa la feria leona, construido en el siglo IV aC y restaurado por Benvenuto Cellini. También es famosa la estatua del "Arringatore", que representa al noble Aule Metelle, mientras que otros símbolos pertenecen al arte funerario, como la "Mater Matuta", "La urna del Bottarone", el "Sarcófago de Laerthia Seianti" así como el de las “Amazonas” y el del “Obeso”.

Sección romana del Museo Arqueológico Nacional de Florencia

La sección romana de la Museo Arqueológico Nacional de Florencia encanta con la estatua de 146 cm del "Ídolo de Pesaro", con el "Torso de Livorno", el bronce de la "Minerva d'Arezzo", pero también con lámparas de aceite, pesas, cabeceras, camellos romanos de los Medici y de Lorena. De extraordinario impacto es también la sección dedicada a Egipto, segundo en Italia solo después del Museo de Turín, que contiene también objetos de madera, tela y hueso, así como papiros, vasijas y tallos listos para documentar el período del Imperio Antiguo, Medio y final. parte.

Sección griega del Museo Arqueológico Nacional de Florencia

La sección griega del Museo Arqueológico Nacional de Florencia ofrece una notable colección de cerámica griega recuperada en tumbas etruscas y procedente de intercambios con el mundo griego. Particularmente interesantes son los "Vaso Francois", las "Copas de los Pequeños Maestros", una "hidria de figuras rojas", dos kouroi del Apolo y el pequeño Apolo de Milán, el "Torso d’Atleta", la "Cabeza ecuestre". La parte numismática es una de las más importantes de Italia, con más de 80.000 piezas y la mayor colección de monedas etruscas del mundo (1.173 ejemplares).


Florencia & # 8211 Museo Arqueológico & # 8211 Antigüedades Etruscas

DESDE la colección de Cipriano, el visitante entra en el conjunto de habitaciones asignadas a los restos etruscos. Los asentamientos etruscos se extendieron por la mayor parte de Italia, desde las llanuras de Lombardía hasta el Tíber, y sus relaciones comerciales con Egipto, Grecia y Asia introdujeron diversas manufacturas que dificultan la distinción entre nativos y extranjeros. Si bien es evidente que la clase alta había obtenido un lujo que implica una alta civilización material, la ausencia de restos literarios, y lo poco que se puede descifrar en las inscripciones monumentales, hacen imposible obtener alguna certeza sobre la historia de este singular pueblo. , los progenitores de los toscanos modernos.

La última conjetura a la que han llegado los arqueólogos es que los etruscos eran una raza pelágica que, en un período precelta, se extendió por Europa y, instalándose en Italia, se mezcló con los habitantes de Osca y Umbría, hasta que, a su vez, , fueron conquistados, como se supone, por los Rasenæ, otra raza del Norte, que formaron la clase dominante o aristocracia, posición que mantuvieron hasta que los romanos sometieron a todo el país. Sus dioses principales eran Tina, el Júpiter romano Cupra, Juno y Menerfa, Minerva: otros dioses eran adorados en lugares particulares. Tina fue asistida por un consejo de doce divinidades, los Dii Consentes, que presidían los poderes de la naturaleza, y eran perecederos con la creación material. Se permitió a nueve dioses blandir el rayo.

En las paredes de las tumbas y en los jarrones y espejos se encuentran con frecuencia representaciones de Venus, Turan, Mercurio, Turms Vulcano, Setlans y Plutón, Mantus, quien, con su consorte Proserpina, Mania, era el jefe de las deidades infernales. Los genios o espíritus asistentes son una característica peculiar de la mitología etrusca, y las imágenes de Lares o divinidades domésticas eran comunes en todas las familias. La Lara, o Lasa, a menudo se representa como una hembra alada. La mitología de Grecia también se encuentra mezclada con la de Etruria. Los vasos griegos en Etruria registran las historias pertenecientes a la religión griega, por lo que sus tradiciones fueron copiadas y asimiladas por los etruscos.

La primera sala de esta colección contiene jarrones de arcilla negra y gris, pertenecientes al período más temprano, llamado Bucchero. En el Gabinete I. hay muestras de la cerámica más antigua, que fue hecha a mano y horneada al sol. En el gabinete II. la mayoría de los jarrones son de Umbría, algunos para uso doméstico y otros para fines cinematográficos, y todos son de arcilla negra, trabajada a mano.

Caso III. contiene jarrones etruscos primitivos, también hechos a mano, uno de ellos, el n. ° r6, es de arcilla roja y de forma muy elegante. El número 13, un gran cráter o kelebe de cerámica negra, es de Orvieto. El Kelebe es la forma de vasija más antigua o arcaica, y se usaba para mezclar agua con el vino, una costumbre prevaleciente entre los antiguos que tenía mangos con pilares o coronados. El número 14 es un recipiente con forma de calabaza, con un asa en la parte inferior y una tapa.

Los jarrones de cerámica negra del Gabinete IV. son algunos de ellos hechos a mano, pero otros han sido girados por el torno de alfarero. El n. ° 19 es un jarrón singular de Chiusi, con las cabezas de gallos colocadas en bocas alternas alrededor del cuerpo del jarrón que era, destinado a los ritos funerarios, ya que el gallo se refería a la muerte y la inmortalidad. El número 26 es también una urna cineraria notable, importante por los relieves de la Esfinge y el Pez.

El número 28 es un juguete infantil de un coche con caballos, encontrado en Orvieto. Los números 18 y 21 son de nuevo vasijas con forma de calabaza.

El caso V. contiene imitaciones de la obra griega del sur de Etruria, una de ellas, la número 31, tiene una paloma en la parte superior. Una jarra u Oinochoe de forma muy elegante, No. 33, en el estante más bajo, ha sido girada por la rueda. El término Oinochoe se aplica a una jarra con pico en forma de trébol, de la cual se vertía agua en las manos de los invitados a un banquete. Estos jarrones se encontraron en Tarquinio, Caere, Veyes y otras ciudades etruscas cercanas a Roma a las que pertenecen antes de Cristo. 700 y A.C. 600. El No. 35 es un jarrón doble con agujeros perforados en el recipiente interior en un estante arriba, el No. 29, es un Oinochoe con la imagen de un caballo en la parte superior, el caballo era un símbolo de un viaje a otro mundo, y por lo tanto, a veces aparece una cabeza de caballo en la esquina de un monumento, que representa la despedida de los moribundos. Aunque está destinado a fines funerarios, el jarrón es una imitación de los que se utilizan en el hogar. El número 34 es un Oinochoe con relieves de animales en un borde estrecho alrededor del cuello y también alrededor del cuerpo.

Casos V. a VII. contienen jarrones de Maritime Etruria, la mayoría de los cuales pertenecen al período de A.C. 600 a.C. 500, y algunos de ellos son imitaciones del griego. Los cántaros del Caso VII. tienen bocas como picos de pájaros. El No. 36 es un pequeño recipiente de cuatro tazas para flores o condimentos.

En el caso VIII. son jarrones de la misma época, que evidentemente han sido fundidos en moldes: Nos. 37, 38 y 39, con palomas en la parte superior, descansando sobre soportes o sobre un aparato para calentar incienso. En el mango del No. 41 hay dos figuras de carácter extremadamente egipcio.

Caso IX. contiene jarrones con decoraciones estampadas por un cilindro, el mismo tema se repite a intervalos iguales, algunos de ellos son de cerámica negra. En el n. ° 43 vuelve a estar representado el caballo. El número 45 es un jarrón rojo de Cortona.

Dos grandes jarrones en las ventanas son: un Dole, o jarra con la boca abierta, y un Pithos, una jarra con cuello, ambos acanalados y con relieves en los bordes estampados por el cilindro. El Pithos fue el jarrón más grande en uso para almacenar líquidos, aceite, frutas y ampc. También se usó ocasionalmente como una urna para contener cenizas humanas, y el cadáver entero incluso a veces fue enterrado en dos Pithi, colocados boca a boca, como se encuentra en una tumba cerca de la antigua Troya. Fue en un Pithos, no en una tina, donde Diógenes se instaló en su morada; los desdichados y sin hogar debían de haberse metido a veces en estos grandes frascos en busca de refugio, ya que había un proverbio griego, La vida de un Pithos, & # 8217 para expresar una existencia mezquina y miserable.

Entre las ventanas hay una bandeja de terracota, con dos figuras barbudas y un carnero en el borde que se supone que contenía algunos de los recipientes para los ritos funerarios.

En el centro de la habitación hay dos Canopi de terracota, con un brazo extendido, una vez contenidas las cenizas de un guerrero, el Canopus de abajo es una obra fina de un período temprano, con la cabeza, el busto y los brazos de un hombre. .

Cerca de una de las entradas a esta sala hay dos Canopi de terracota más pequeños, sobre sillas del mismo material. A cada lado de la puerta que conduce a la habitación más alejada, hay estatuillas de una madre y una hija: la primera vistiéndose ella misma y la segunda peinándose, ambas tenían las cenizas de los muertos.

La mayoría de los jarrones de la segunda sala proceden del barrio de Chiusi. El material, así como los diseños de muchos de ellos, pertenecen a la mejor época de la cerámica negra. El esmalte de estos jarrones es singularmente claro y brillante, las formas son simples y elegantes, algunas acanaladas, pero la mayoría de ellas suaves y los jarrones más pequeños son sumamente hermosos.

En el caso I. son jarrones del período aproximadamente a. C. 600 están decoradas mediante el proceso cilíndrico. Casos II. y III. contener una continuación del mismo. Los del Caso IV. tienen relieves de leones, la esfinge y ampc. En el Caso V. se encuentran varias copas de diversas formas, bellamente ornamentadas en el relieve N ° 50 que se destaca por la forma, y ​​los relieves de hombres y ciervos. Caso VI. tiene jarrones cinerarios (cofres de cenizas) de todas las formas, con bandejas, probablemente sacadas de las tumbas de mujeres, ya que todos los objetos que contienen son para uso doméstico; están provistas de tabletas sobre las que se frotó cera para escribir con el lápiz .

En el tercer estante hay jarrones que descansan sobre soportes, y en el estante más alto, varios de una forma peculiar, que pueden haber sido utilizados como apoyo para los brazos, algunos son jarrones en forma de canasta, & ampc.

En la parte superior y dentro de las vitrinas A y B en el centro de la sala hay jarrones funerarios con figuras en relieve de cabezas humanas, representadas en gemas griegas para representar las melenas o el espíritu difunto, la esfinge, los gansos, los ciervos, los caballos que llevan a los muertos. , con gallos y palomas, están en las copas. Within Case B is a tray containing household utensils.

Case VII. has vases remarkable for beauty of form, as well as several trays. An Oinochoe, No. 58, has a fine lustre.

In Case VIII., No. 59 has a lid in the form of a Bull’s head, and below is a relief of the Greek legend of Theseus with the Marathonian Bull he seizes it by the horns with one hand, whilst with the other he grasps one of the animal’s forelegs. No. 64 is a singular vase with a dove on the top, and the relief of an Egyptian head, characterised by the high set ears, and with eyes descending towards the nose, peculiar to Egyptian art.

Crossing the gallery of painted vases, the two rooms beyond, called the Sale degli Arnesi, are filled with a most interesting collection of bronzes. Under a large glass case in the centre of the first room are various articles of a lady’s toilet found in a tomb at Chiusi, and belonging to one of the best periods of art, about B.C. 500. A cup or vase for incense is supported by the figure of an athlete two smaller vases were for perfumes one of glass is a Phoenician importation two beautiful alabastrons of alabaster are from the East and two others in painted pottery are from Attica. The alabastron was probably intended for paint it has no foot, and is sometimes in the shape of an animal the material of which they are made is either, like the first of these, oriental alabaster, or else terra-cotta with black designs on a cream-coloured ground.

In this case are also a mirror, and a most graceful article for the toilet, in the form of a Nereid holding the shell of Venus. A fine bronze vase at the top of the case is surmounted by a dancing nymph. Below is a Braciere, or pan for charcoal, with an instrument ending in a hand to stir the fuel round the edge are bearded satyrs.

Cases I. and II. contain candelabra, some of them in exquisite forms one is supported by three panthers. The candelabra No. 8 was brought from Telamon below, Venus looks at herself in a mirror the upper part is supported by a Nereid frogs are in the corners several lamps and finely-wrought handles of cistae, or caskets, are of great beauty. One is composed of two warriors, another of winged genii supporting a dying soldier on the upper shelf, besides a casket, there are two feet of a tripod, one of which represents Perseus with the dying Medusa, the other Peleus and Thetis. No. 11 is an emblem in the form of a star-fish, with a head in the centre, and an inscription to the effect that this was a sacred gift from one Aulus Velturius, son of Fenizia.

Case III. has only military weapons. Case IV. has a complete suit of armour, which has been gilt it is from a tomb near Orvieto the helmet and shield, with the breastplate and grieves, are beautifully moulded to the form.

Case V. contains various weapons, and bronze helmets of a very early or archaic period a bronze hatchet with a long ivory handle studded with amber, probably for sacrificial purposes, was found at Chiusi. The quantity of amber in Etruscan ornaments may be considered a proof in support of the theory that the race in early times was spread over Europe as far as the Baltic though it might also have been imported, since the Etruscans appear to have carried their commerce into all parts of the known world. No. 17 is a bronze Italian helmet or Pileus, in the form of a skull-cap of felt, as seen in representations of Ulysses it has horses engraven on it. In Case VI. are other military weapons : No. 18 is a Greek helmet, which may be compared with No. 19, an Etruscan helmet.

Case VII. has several objects of great interest discovered near the Tower of Telamon. No. 2 7 is a little model of a plough.

Case VIII. contains implements for domestic use found in the Necropolis of Telamon. No. 31 is a Patera, or sacrificial cup of bronze, with reliefs, in which Professor Milani recognises Ulysses, with Diomedes, visiting Philoctetes. Philoctetes, one of the heroes of the Trojan war, had received the bow and arrows of Hercules, without which Troy could not be taken he was detained in the island of Lemnos by either a self-inflicted wound, or a serpent’s sting in his foot and Ulysses and Diomedes followed him thither, to entreat him to return and hasten the capture of Troy. The subject is found on Greek and Etruscan vases and Scarabei. On an upper shelf is a balsam vase No. 33 is a vase in the form of a head of Venus near it is a beautiful jug and No. 35 is a finely-shaped Situla or pail No. 34 is a lovely Patera, the handle of which has a winged figure of Lasa, the female genius attached to the worship of Venus.

Case IX. contains vessels supposed to be as old as B.C. 700 to B.C. 500. No. 42 is a little silver Situla found at Chiusi, unique of its kind on it are engraven warriors on horseback and women carrying bundles on their heads the style of art is very Phoenician: and No. 41 is one of the most ancient funeral vases in existence.

Case X.: No. 51 is a bronze mask from Chiusi No. 52, a bird cage No. 49, an ornament or handle in extremely fine workmanship a youth bends backwards, and is supported by two bearded men, who carry him on their shoulders.

Case XI. contains fragments of vases, chiefly belonging to the fourth and third centuries before Christ.

Cases XII. to XV. have utensils for domestic use, handles, and ornaments, such as pins, bracelets, and armlets of bronze, besides razors, strigils, and pincers.

In a case in the window is a fine collection of ivories. The most valuable represents a pigmy bearing a dead crane on his shoulder it is in good Greek work, or an. Etruscan copy from the Greek. No. 90 are fragments of a small casket found in a tomb at Orvieto, and is of Etruscan or Asiatic work, though the subject is Greek : Hercules with the Stag, and two reclining figures at a banquet No. 82, Bacchus and a Satyr No. 83, Apollo, in fine low relief. There are, besides, dice, combs, a beautiful little alabastron, and fragments of other articles.

Above the large cases against the walls are placed bronze vases, a tripod with a sacrificial basin on it, a bronze wheel, &c. The decorations of this room are copied from the warrior’s tomb at Cære.

In the adjoining room are three splendid bronze figures. The Chimæra, which was discovered in the centre of a tomb near Corneto, is one of the most perfect bronzes of antiquity. It was brought to Florence in 1554, and is cited by Vasari as a proof of the excellence to which the Etruscans had arrived in bronze casting. It is supposed to be nearly contemporaneous with the Wolf of Rome, though less archaic in character. The inscription on the right foreleg is as follows :-FINS’ IVIL—and signifies the dedication to a divinity. The characters mark the period, as some letters in the Etruscan alphabet are known to have been a late innovation. The myth of the Chimera or fire-breathing monster—therefore appropriately represented in metal—is supposed to have been invented in a volcanic district of Asia Minor, from whence a colony was planted in Etruria but it is difficult to account for the form of a lion, with a dragon or serpent for a tail, and a goat’s head springing from the back. The serpent here is a restoration of the sixteenth century, and it is by no means certain that it was intended to bite the goat. The monster is represented wounded by Bellerophon, and the whole action expresses pain. When brought to Florence it was placed in a room of the Palazzo Vecchio, inhabited by the Grand Duke Cosimo I. It is alluded to in a postscript to u letter written by Annibale Caro to Cardinal Farnese the year of its discovery :—’ The accompanying drawing is of a bronze statue found when excavating certain ditches, if I remember well, in Arezzo or in Volterra, which is not exhibited, because the superstitious consider it portentous of something relating to the Grand Duke, and to signify the Marzocco of Florence with the Capricorn, which last belongs to (or was the crest of) the Duke, and, both being wounded, augur some evil about to befall him.’ But we have something more to do than attend to these idle tales.l

The Orator, a statue above life-size, is in one corner of the room. His right arm is raised, and his body is slightly inclined forward, as if addressing an audience the fingers of the left hand, one of which has a ring, are bent, but in movement the whole figure is full of life, and expresses the orator, by which name this statue is known. He is attired in a tunic with short sleeves, and a mantle, which hangs in large and simple folds an inscription is on the border of the tunic to this effect :

AULESI METELLIS—VE VESTAL—KLENSI KEN—PLERES—TEKE—SAN S L—TENINE TUTHINES CHIS(E)LIKS,

To Aulus Metellis Ve Vesiah, his son presents this gift un-worthy, he deposited as his offering this effigy.

The buskins, or shoes, are fastened by thongs twisted round the leg the head is noble and animated, with the eager expression, plain features, and square intellectual brow commonly seen in Tuscany among the middle and lower orders the hair is short, and beard shaven as was usual with the Etruscans the exaggerated length of the right arm is owing to imperfect repairs. This statue was discovered near the Lake of Thrasymene, and is another proof to what perfection the art of bronze casting, as well as modelling, was brought by the Etruscans.

To the right of the entrance to this room is a bronze statue, Minerva with the Ægis, discovered near Arezzo in 1541, and worthy of all praise for elegance of proportions and finish of detail. The repairs have been badly made. Minerva is without her spear, one hand is concealed in the folds of her dress, the other is extended, perhaps to receive offerings and thus represented, she is symbolical of Peace. The Chiton, or tunic, falls to her feet in Close folds, whilst the Himation, or square mantle, is drawn tightly round her person a serpent is on her helmet : the pose is full of dignity.

Within the glass case at the farther window is a choice collection of works or art. No. r is an Etruscan portrait head No. 2, Bacchus and his attendant genius, a purely Etruscan work, B.C. 300 No. 3, a Greco-Roman statuette of Jove, is placed here to stand a comparison with the other bronzes in this case, which are all Etruscan : it is very grand in form and majestic in attitude No. 4, Castor reining back his horse, is full of spirit, and was possibly suggested by a work of Lysippus No. 6 is an archaic Umbrian statuette of Minerva. Above these bronzes, No. 10 represents a dying Hercules striving to tear off the poisoned garment No. 11, Hercules killing the Hydra, formed part of a group executed about B.C. 400 No. 9, Perseus No. 13, Pegasus and No. 12, a Chimaera.

Below are very beautiful bronze casts of hands one has a ring on the forefinger. Also the statuette of a warrior.

At the end of the room, facing the entrance, are three glass cases. In the central is a collection of mirrors, and of the sheaths or cases of mirrors, some of which have on the backs very beautiful reliefs one represents Orestes followed by the Furies another, Bacchus , preceded by a Muse. The finest is in the centre, and is supposed to represent Hermes (Mercury), bringing the infant Bacchus to Ino, the daughter of Cadmus. Various representations of animals and of long archaic human figures, with bronzes of a late period, are ranged along the top or placed within the two other cases.

One of the most beautiful objects in this room is a small bronze Situla, six inches high, and originally gilt, which is suspended in a glass case facing the window to the left of the entrance. It was found near Volsinium, and is decorated with a relief of the most delicate workmanship. The subject is Dionysus (Bacchus) and Ariadne conducting Hephaistos (Vulcan) back to Olympus they are attended by Satyrs and Mænads. Hephaistos is riding on an ass, on which is inscribed the word Suthina in Etruscan letters, which denotes the vase to have been a votive offering. The period is probably between B.C. 350 and B.C. 300, and the .work Etruscan under Hellenic influence. Cases I., II., and III., near the walls, contain a number of small figures connected with the mythology of Etruria.

Returning to the gallery of painted vases, the compartment at the end is filled by a large case, in which is a collection of objects discovered in 1880 in a tomb at Chiusi, and belonging to an early period, probably about B.C. 700. A bronze chair, the seat originally of wood, was covered with an imitation of leather in bronze on this is placed a large bronze vase, which is classed with the Canopi, since vases of this shape have the human head often added. Several household utensils are also here, and a red vase of the same elegant form as the early vase in the first room of this collection. Case II., near the window, contains dice and eyes, which were perhaps intended as a charm to protect the wearer against the evil eye, a superstition still prevalent in Tuscany, and possibly derived from the same charm worn by the Egyptians as typical of the Sun, a divinity and protecting power. Here are also vases belonging to the Pelasgic or earliest Etruscan era, made by the potter’s wheel, and painted with rude images of animals.

The most archaic pottery which had any pretension to artistic merit was made in Corinth, and the few specimens that remain may generally be recognised by a rude representation of the Corinthian rose. A Corinthian is supposed to have imported the art into Etruria. The Greco-Etruscan vases of the earliest period are of a yellow or pale ashen colour, and have a dull opaque surface they are decorated with designs in brown, crimson, purple and white. The figures are ranged within horizontal bands round the vase, and are Asiatic in character, whilst the lotus leaf of Egypt forms a conspicuous ornament. The subjects are chiefly the combats of wild animals—lions, leopards, bulls, goats, swans, the sphinx, chimæra, and griffin, all representing a chaotic age. Wherever the human form appears, it is stiff and conventional where a legend or history is represented, the names are written over each individual in early Greek or Etruscan characters.

The period of painted Greek vases commenced earlier than any known Greek sculpture, and ended about the reign of Alexander of Macedon, B.C. 334-323. They were used first in the celebration of the rites of Bacchus and Ceres, the divinities of wine and corn, whose ceremonies were symbolical of immortality for, as the skin of the grape must be broken to produce wine, and the corn must be sown in the ground and die before bread can be made, so the body of man must perish before his spirit can be set free. These painted vases were sometimes used to contain the wine thrown on the funereal pile, and were afterwards placed in the tomb others contained the ashes of the dead others, again, were the gifts of friends, and these have the name and the Greek word ‘Beautiful,’ equivalent to ‘ Hail I ‘—inscribed on them. Many of the vases were used as rewards for the victors in the public games. The ground of painted vases in the second period is red, and the figures black, with the occasional use of white for the faces and hands of the females, and of purple in the draperies. The drawing is still dry and stiff, but with life and movement and dramatic effect, sometimes bordering on caricature.

In Cases III. and IV. are vases with the rose of Corinth, and in Case IV. a vase, probably made at Athens, with, on one side, the departure of a hero, on the other Troilus, who is flying on horseback from the pursuit of Achilles on foot.

In the right corner, entering the longest compartment, is an amphora of light-coloured clay with a painting, representing three dancing nymphs.

The amphora is a two-handled vessel, generally tall, and often, as in the instance just mentioned, pointed at the base, for insertion in the ground.

The cases facing the windows contain vases supposed to be of Greek manufacture, either imported, or manufactured under the direction of Greek artists in Etruria. The opposite cases contain vases of native work, which were generally imitations of the Greek. The Etruscans appear to have been endowed with a highly imitative faculty, and not to have produced much that was original.

Case V. to the right has vases with black or polychrome figures on a red ground, and are chiefly of Attic manufacture, about B.C. 600. A Hydria, or water jar, which has always three handles, for the convenience of lifting it on the head, is ornamented with the story of the marriage of Peleus. In the upper part are Hercules and Ichnaea or Themis, the personification of Law, Order, and Equity, and often represented in a figure resembling Athenæ (Minerva). On a vase above, Poseidon (Neptune) is seen disputing with Athenæ for the possession of the Acropolis of Athens.

The subjects of the second period of Greek art are chiefly taken from the exploits of Hercules.

An early polychrome vase in Case VI. represents Hercules and Minerva fighting with the Titans and above this is a vase in the succeeding grand style, in which Hercules is again the subject on the warrior’s shield in this composition is a Gorgon’s head, and two panthers in white.

In Cases VIL, VIII., and IX. are vases with black figures on a light ground, belonging to the decadence of the second period of art.

The third and best period of ceramic art consists of red figures on a black ground. The designs do not at first differ widely from those of the second period, and the style may be divided into early and late. The early style is stiff and archaic, but vigorous the late, in which the art of drawing has attained greater elegance, as well as freedom, may be assigned to three hundred years before our era, or from the end of the Peloponnesian war to Alexander the Great. The early or strong style belongs to the age of Phidias the most graceful is contemporary with Parrhasius and Apelles, when inscriptions gradually disappear, and scenes of domestic life, or the gentler tales of heroic legend, are substituted for the labours of Hercules and the feats of Achilles.

Near the door leading to the room of sarcophagi, in Case X., is a very fine Kelebe, a vessel already described among the black vases as belonging to an early period and generally found in Sicily or Magna Græcia. On this is represented the combat of the Centaurs and Lapithæ, in red figures on a black ground the figures are full of vigorous movement, life, and strength, and the composition very grand. Near this Kelebe are two fine Stamni, high-shouldered, short-necked vases, with two small handles, they were for oil and fruit, and are still in use under the same name in Greece on one of these are represented nymphs, and the artificer, Hermanax, has inscribed his name upon it on the other, Theseus is seen slaying the Centaur Pholos. On an upper shelf is a Pelike, or pear-shaped vase, having on it the legend of Theseus killing the Minotaur.

The Cases XI. to XV. between the door leading to the rooms of Sarcophagi and Urns and that leading to the room of Gold Ornaments and Glass, are principally filled with Kylice, the most elegant of ancient goblets, in various forms, having red figures on a black ground. They range from an early to a late period of art, and some of them are exceedingly beautiful.

The deep two-handled cup, or Kantharos, of which there are examples in Case XI., was especially dedicated to Bacchus the one-handled Kyathos was used to dip into the mixing jar or Krater, in which the wine and water were prepared.

The Kylix in its latest form was a flat-shaped saucer with two handles, and is generally most remarkable for beauty in the design, and was ornamented within and without. The mirror on which some of the best are placed on the lowest shelf, enables the visitor to judge of the excellence of the designs beneath these vases. Several have large eyes painted on them, either as charms, or as some suppose because they belonged to ships, a not improbable supposition, since the ship, when represented on engraved gems or vases, follows the idea of a Dolphin and even on Greek or Dalmatian vessels to this day, the eye is painted on the prow round the hole where the rope passes. On a vase in the British Museum Ulysses is seen tied to the mast, whilst passing the Syrens, and here the eye is distinctly marked on the prow of the vessel.

A fine Tazza, or Kylix, in Case XIII., has Theseus and the Minotaur inside, and underneath are represented other enter-prises of the Athenian hero. On another Kylix is a banquet two youths prepare for the games, one of whom holds the strigil, a bronze instrument used to scrape off the oil with which they anointed their bodies a fillet is bound round their heads above the principal figures, who recline on couches, are the utensils for the feast.

Some of the finest vases in the collection are contained in Case XVI. Next the door leading to the room of Gold Ornaments is an Oinochoe from Nola, on which are represented Dionysus (Bacchus) holding a Kantharos, and standing between two Mænads there is also an amphora, on which Hercules is seen with a tripod, and on the other side Helios (Apollo). Above these is a smaller .vase, but very important from the beauty of the design with which it is ornamented. Selene or Luna, the goddess of the Moon, is seated gracefully on a horse which is drinking this is supposed to be copied from a composition by Phidias.

On another vase a nymph is pursued by a satyr. On a third .a marriage is represented the bride is attended by her Pronubus—the young married man, husband of one wife—who has to lift her across the threshold of her new home, which is here typified by a column she stretches out her hand towards her bridegroom.

In Case XVII. is an Athenian Stamnos, B.C. 500—400, with three nymphs one lays her hand on the head of another the subject is gracefully treated. On a small amphora above, Peleus is pursuing Thetis.

One of the most beautiful compositions is on a Kalpis, a kind of Hydria or Water-jar, in Case XVIII. According to Dennis, the subject upon it is the nymph Herse pursued by Hermes—Mercury—whilst her sister Agraulos, prompted by jealousy, runs off to inform their father Cecrops. On the line above are seen two girls, Dorka and Selinike, dressed as warriors, and performing in turn the Pyrrhic dance another female plays the double flute, whilst one behind her is seated as a spectator, with an attendant at the back of her chair she is followed by a maiden playing on the lyre and the composition ends by a winged cupid.

Beside the Kalpis is a vase with Triptolemus on his winged chariot he is represented as a youthful hero, wearing the felt cap of ploughmen and fishermen, the same as that worn by Mercury. Demeter (Ceres) and Persephone (Proserpine) are on either side. Triptolemus was the hero of the Eleusinian mysteries, which were held in honour of Demeter. The goddess had once her infant brother in charge, and wishing to make the boy immortal, held him over a fire, but his mother screaming in terror, the child was consumed. As a compensation to the parents, Demeter gave Triptolemus a winged chariot, on which he travelled over the earth, and made mankind acquainted with the blessings of agriculture. A small Stamnos in Case XIX. has a warrior on a white horse attacking another on foot the horse and the rider are full of spirit.

In the last cases in this compartment, XX. and XXI., are vases from Apulia and Southern Italy of a late period, and black vases with white foliage and figures from Brindisi. A large vase in the corner of this room, decorated in polychrome, has on the centre medallion three figures, supposed by some to represent Ulysses and Diomedes with Philoctetes at Lemnos, hut great uncertainty remains as to the meaning of this composition.

In the farthest compartment of this long gallery, Cases XXII. to XXIV. contain black vases which were found in the Etruscan Campagna, but in good Greek forms, and be-longing to a period from B.C. 300 to B.C. 200. Several of them have fine reliefs, especially a Situla in one of the central cases, XXV., on which is represented Acton or Endymion with a dog. Several fine Kraters, in Case XXIV., with small handles near the base, and ornamented with foliage, are in very elegant forms. In Case XXVII., near the end, are vases from Orvieto, which have been gilt.

In Case XXVIII. are fine red vases from Arezzo, a ware which was highly esteemed by the Romans. In the cases opposite are placed provisionally various terra-cottas of friezes and some votive offerings. Returning by the side near the window, the cases contain Etruscan imitations of minor importance. The vases first arrived at were taken from the tomb at Orvieto discovered a few years ago they have a dull surface, and yellow figures on a dark ground.

In the centre of this Gallery is placed the famous François vase, which was discovered by Signor Alessandro François in 1845 at Fonte Rotella, near Chiusi. It is a large wide-mouthed Krater of the second period, and is minutely described by Dennis :—on the neck of the vase are two bands of figures on one side is the Hunt of the Boar of Calydon the heroes and dogs have their names inscribed, and among the former are Kastor and Poludeukes—Pollux. At each end is a sphinx. On the other side is the Return of Theseus from the Slaughter of the Minotaur. The ship approaches the land, and one of the companions of Theseus leaps ashore another casts himself into the sea to swim to the land, where thirteen youths and maidens are dancing in honour of Theseus, who plays the lyre, and has Ariadne by his side.

On the second band of the vase is represented the Battle of the Centaurs and Lapithæ, with all their names attached. Theseus is prominent in the fight. On the other side are Funeral Games in honour of Patroclus a race of five chariots with four horses, and Achilles standing at the goal with a tripod for the winner tripods and vases are beneath the chariots.

The third and principal band has the Marriage of Peleus and Thetis the goddess is in a Doric temple with an altar, on which is a Kantharos, and her mortal spouse Peleus before her his hand is held by the Centaur Cheiron, who is followed by Iris with the Caduceus, by the nymphs Hestia, Chariklo, and one other lastly, Dionysus carrying an Amphora. A long procession follows of deities in chariots, beginning with Zeus and Hera Ares and Aphrodite occupy the fourth car Hermes and his mother Maia, the sixth Hephaistos on his donkey comes last.

In the fourth band Achilles, on foot, is pursuing Troilus, who is in a chariot. . After Achilles is his mother, Thetis Athenæ, Hermes, and Rhodia are near the fountain, where Troilus was said to have been surprised. Under the steeds of his chariot is a Hydria, which a terrified female has let fall. The walls of Troy are painted white, and are of regular Greek masonry. The gate is not arched, but a flat lintel. Hector and Polites hasten out of it to the rescue of their brother Troilus. Outside the gate is seated Priam on his throne talking with his son Antenor. Two Trojans are at the fountain : one of them is filling a vase the water flows from spouts made like the heads of panthers. On the other side of the fountain is the Return of Hephaistos to Olympus. Zeus and Hera are on a throne at the end, and behind them are Athenæ, Ares and Artemis (Minerva, Mars and Diana), Dionysus and Aphrodite, (Bacchus and Venus) they are pleading for Hephaistos, who follows on his ass, attended by Silenus and nymphs. The fifth band contains beasts of various descriptions, griffins, sphinges, lions, panthers, boars, bulls, &c.

The sixth band is on the foot of the vase, and has a representation of pygmies mounted on goats and fighting with the cranes. The painter’s and potter’s names are on the principal band—` Clitias drew me: Ergotimus made me.’ On one handle is an image of Diana grasping her panthers by the necks on the other she is holding a panther and stag. Beneath are groups of Ajax bearing the body of Achilles. Within each handle is a Fury running : the same figure which is often seen on Etruscan vases.

Below the François vase is a Skyphos or Goblet with high incurved handles, in imitation of metal on it are figures of Kephalos carried off by Eos, the Dawn. On a Stamnos Hercules is represented playing the double fife to Pan, who carries his club, whilst a Faun starts backwards in astonishment.

A Stamnos has Dionysus receiving a Libation from Ariadne, who holds the jug, whilst he has the Kantharos behind Dionysus a nymph carries a torch. There is also in the same case a splendid fragment of an Athenian vase, with the Combat of the Centaurs and Lapithae in the grand or severe style. A round Pyksis, Pyx, or casket of terra cotta, was intended for a lady’s toilet.

In another glass case in the centre of this Gallery is a Corinthian Krater, with a combat of warriors. This Krater is a double vase the inner for wine, the outer to contain snow to cool the wine below this is a fine vase of Orvieto of the time of the decadence. A room off this Gallery is assigned for gold Etruscan monuments, glass bowls, &c. The ornaments are extremely rich and delicate in design and workmanship the light gold leaves in garlands, which could be blown away at a breath, were intended for the dead. The glass cups and bowls, of which there is a considerable number, are equal to, or even excel in beauty of form and colour the celebrated Venetian glass from the island of Murano.

The second door in the long gallery leads to the first room of sarcophagi—Sala delle Urne. In the centre is a sarcophagus on which the life-sized statue of a lady reclines it is in coloured terra cotta. The cushion on which her arm rests is painted, and has a double fringe her dress is finished with so much exactness of detail, as to be a faithful representation of the costume of Etruscan women of rank. She has a wreath of flowers on her head, and wears earrings, necklace, brooch, bracelets and armlets, of gold her dress, which ‘is ornamented in colour, is confined at the waist by a girdle, set in precious stones : she holds a mirror in her hand. The sarcophagus itself is richly decorated, and bears an inscription. This valuable discovery was made in the neighbourhood of Chiusi. Another but larger sarcophagus, also in the centre of the room, is from Orvieto it is ornamented with griffins, human heads, &c. Between the two sarcophagi is a stele or monument from Fiesole, very Asiatic in character.

On either side of the entrance are statues of divinities of an Egyptian type. Turning to the left, the large monumental slabs against the wall are very archaic, and have the appearance of Asiatic sculpture men and animals are represented in relief the lion and the goose, typical of strength and weakness, or the perpetual conflict in nature, are the most conspicuous. In the middle of the second wall is a stone door, which turns on a pivot, and was brought from a tomb at Orvieto.

Several of the Cippi or urns here are imitations of a house with the roof as constructed by the Etruscans. On a shelf on the third wall are several Canopi from Chiusi, and urns with scenes relating to the passage of the soul to the other life also a fragment in Etruscan-Roman architecture of what may have been the pediment to a monument sacred to Silvanus, the wood-god. It is divided into three little temples containing small figures. In the centre is the god Silvanus with a sickle and cornucopia, and with a dog by his side to the left is a peasant with a wineskin and the pedum or shepherd’s crook to the right a satyr with corn and a cornucopia.

Near the door leading to the last room of this collection are two seated statues without hands or feet, and the heads made separate from the body. They have been supposed to represent Proserpine.

Beyond this door is another sarcophagus with the figure of a man, life-size, reclining upon it he holds a Patera, or sacrificial saucer, in his hand. On the shelf above are urns representing scenes of friends parting, emblematical of Death. Near an entrance to the room of black vases is a statue of a female divinity holding a Pomegranate the head is wanting : on the other side of the door is a slab with a figure of Egyptian type, which has been described by Dennis in the collection of Buonarroti. The wall farther on has slabs with reliefs of symbolical animals.

In the centre of the last room, or second Sala delle Urne, is the most remarkable monument here a sarcophagus which was discovered by the Avocato Giuseppe Braschi, in 1869. The cover is of Italian marble in the form of a roof, with females’ heads at the angles, and at either end, a relief of a youth and dog, probably Actæon. On one façade is a long inscription in Etruscan letters. The sarcophagus itself is of a different marble from the cover, in texture approaching alabaster, and is supposed to have been brought from the neighbourhood of Volterra. On both sides are magnificent paintings in distemper, which, though partly injured, retain enough to give some idea of Greek pictorial art, as it evidently belongs to the most cultivated period of Etruscan history, probably between B.C. 350 and B.C. 300. The painting is not executed on a prepared ground, but applied by some glutinous material, such as fig juice, to the marble itself. It has stood the test of time, and of the deleterious effect of the earth under which it has laid buried about 2,000 years, with marvellously little injury. The colour resembles that on. Athenian vases, which were painted on a white ground. The subject is taken from the combats of the Amazons with the Greeks. Beginning with the side on which the inscription on the cover is repeated with slight alterations on the sarcophagus itself, an Amazon is seen mounted on a splendid white charger, defending herself from the attacks of two warriors she raises her sword to strike the bearded warrior on her left he is clothed in armour, and with his spear in one hand, and protecting himself with his shield from the blow aimed at him, advances to the attack a singularly beautiful youth follows, and beyond him are two more groups, in one of which a Greek warrior on foot is slaying an Amazon who has fallen to the ground whilst in the last an Amazon mounted on a grey horse is fighting with another Greek. To the right of the central Amazon a youthful warrior attacks her with his sword behind him another young Hoplite is preparing to slay a fallen Amazon, and his hesitation and even sorrow at his own act, with her sad and supplicating look, are given with great truth and beauty. Not less marvellous for correct drawing, and perspective, is the foreshortened white horse on which is an Amazon armed with two spears, and fighting with a bearded warrior. She wears a lion’s skin, and her horse is richly ornamented with gold chains.

On the opposite side of the sarcophagus are represented two quadrige, or chariots drawn by four horses, which advance from either end the centre of the picture, where is the thick of the fight, is occupied by Greek soldiers. Beginning at the left end, a Greek has fallen beneath the horse’s feet and raises himself on his left arm a beardless youth tries to protect him with his shield. The four horses charge magnificently. One Amazon acts as charioteer, and protects herself with her shield whilst holding the reins the other, dressed in white, supports herself by the parapet of the chariot, whilst throwing her lance. Both wear gold earrings and other ornaments. At the farther extremity, a youth has fallen beneath the horses of the quadriga advancing from the right a warrior, who hastens to his aid, has plunged his spear into the neck of one of the horses, which nevertheless gallops forward gallantly with the rest. One of the Amazons, a most beautiful woman, leans forward eagerly, and draws her bow the other, who acts as charioteer, wears the red Phrygian cap. Both have earrings. At one end of the sarcophagus is a most spirited representation of a wounded soldier, attacked by the Amazons at the farther end, which is the most injured part, and less distinct, an Amazon appears to have fallen to the ground, whilst another defends her from the enemy. Description cannot convey the charm of these paintings, in which there is infinite variety as well as beauty of expression, both in the countenances and actions the life and movement of the figures, the careful drawing of the extremities, the attention to details, which are, however, kept in due subordination—even the iron points of the handles of the spears for fixing them in the ground are not omitted—the costumes, the armour, the delicate gold ornaments, the floating draperies indicating rapid movement, the spirit thrown into the horses, and the soft, agreeable colour, all give a high idea of the skill and knowledge to which the Greek painter had attained. Beyond this is the poetry of thought which pervades the composition the chivalry and tenderness of feeling which reconciles the spectator to that which might otherwise appear unmanly in the male warrior or unwomanly in the female.

Around this room are many very interesting urns with reliefs of various legends, beginning from top to bottom, and again from the bottom upwards—a peculiar arrangement, in accordance with Greek tradition, as the ox draws the plough, which has here been adopted by Professor Milani. The small statues reclining on the urns, which probably contained the ashes of the dead, are in short proportions to fit the lid, and of a conventional type the reliefs below are generally in very superior art. The men wear garlands or coronals, and chains of a peculiar form round their necks, or twined in their head-dresses they have rings on their fingers, and hold a Patera or sacrificial cup sometimes they have a tablet or diptych in their hands the females are generally represented with a fan formed like a palm leaf, or with mirrors.

Turning to the left of the entrance, the reliefs are chiefly taken from the story of the Calydonian Boar Greek legend being introduced, as well as subjects which typify the journey of the soul to another world. No. 2 and No. 3 have the history of Theseus No. 4 and No. 5, Hippolytus, whose horses were terrified by a sea-monster sent by Poseidon, and as they ran away dragged him in his chariot till dead. From No. to to No. 18 are different representations of the story of Pelops and Hippodameia. Pelops bribed Myrtillus, the charioteer of his rival OEnomaus, to allow him to win the race for the hand of Hippodameia. In all these are typified the conflict, as well as the race or journey of life, towards a goal.

From No. 19 to No. 44 is the legend of Cadmus, who was commanded by the Oracle at Delphi to follow a cow, which led him to the spot where he built Thebes. He was about to sacrifice the cow to Athene, and went for water to a well be-longing to the god Ares, when he encountered a dragon, which he slew, and sowed its teeth in the ground, from which sprang up men who became the ancestors of the Thebans. His marriage was celebrated in the presence of the gods, and he presented his wife Harmonia with the famous Peplos, or veil. In the end Cadmus and Harmonia were changed into dragons. The story was symbolical of the migration of a race of warriors.

From No. 45 to No. 47 is the Theban legend of OEdipus, who was exposed at his birth and brought up by a shepherd, be-cause an oracle had informed his father Laius that he would perish by the hand of his child which oracle was fulfilled when OEdipus slew him in a fray without being aware who he was. When OEdipus became king of Thebes a series of calamities followed, which ended by his putting out his own eyes, and being expelled from the city.

From No. 48 to No. 67 the subjects are taken again from Thebes. The war in which the two sons of OEdipus, Eteocles and Polynices, quarrelled for their father’s kingdom is here represented. Polynices was supported by Adrastus, king of Argos, who was joined by five other heroes, forming the confederacy known as the Seven against Thebes. One of the most beautiful reliefs in this room is No. 64, in which Eteocles and Polynices have killed one another both sink to the ground, and the avenging Nemesis is seen above.

From No. 68 to No. 70 are incidents taken from the life of Paris of Troy No. 71 has the Rape of Helen and No. 72 to No. 75 the story of Telephus, the son of Hercules, who, when wounded by Achilles, was cured by the rust from his antagonist’s spear. From No. 76 to No. 78 is the story of the Sacrifice of Iphigenia and from No. 78 to No. 97 are other subjects relating to the Siege of Troy, such as Achilles pursuing Troilus, and the story of Patroclus on the relief, No. 86, he is carried to burial No. 82 to No. 86, Philoctetes is visited by Ulysses and Diomedes No. 87 and No. 88 represent the wooden horse by which Troy was taken. No. 89 has the story of Orestes No. 90 to No. 97 has scenes from the Odyssey : No. 97, Orestes and Iphigenia in Aulis, is one of the finest of the series. From No. 98 to No. 106 are all subjects of which the meaning has not yet been ascertained. The most peculiar is where the Orco, or Hobgoblin, in the shape of a Bear, is rising from a well.


National Archaeological Museum

The Archaeological Museum houses Etruscan finds of great importance. Among others, the bronze statue "Chimera", which represents an animal partly lion, partly goat, partly snake, and was found in 1533 in Arezzo. Other highlights are the "Arringatore" (speakers), the "Minerva" and the urns made of terracotta and travertine from Volterra, as well as the Greek ceramic vases with black figures. The museum is well known for its large Egyptian collection, the second largest in Italy after Turin.
Until March 2019, there is a special exhibition named "L’Arte di donare. Nuove acquisizioni del Museo Archeologico Nazionale". The exhibition presents a collection of works of art and ancient craftsmanship. All works that further enrich the art collections that make the National Archaeological Museum of Florence the largest and most important archaeological museum in Italy to the north of Rome.

Opening hours National Archaeological Museum

Friday, Saturday and first Sunday of the month: 8:30 am - 2 pm

last entrance 45 min before closing

Tue – Fri: 8:30 am – 7 pm
Sat – Mon: 8:30 am – 2 pm

Closed: 1 January, 1 May, Christmas, every second, fourth and fifth Sunday of the month

Admission fee National Archaeological Museum

The regular admission fee to the National Archaeological Museum is:
Adult: 7 €
Reduced: 5 €

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Special conditions of use National Archaeological Museum

With your admission ticket to the Uffizi Gallery/ your Florence City Pass, you will receive free admission to the National Archaeological Museum (valid for five days from the visit of the Uffizi).

Highlights National Archaeological Museum

  • Bronze statue "Chimera"
  • Large Egyptian collection
  • Vase François
  • Sarcophagus of the Amazons
  • Greco-Roman Bronzetti
  • Special exhibition (until March 2019): "L'Arte di donare: Nuove acquisizioni del Museo Archeologico Nazionale"

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