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La fiesta de la prohibición

La fiesta de la prohibición



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Aunque era (y es) una organización política menor, el Partido de la Prohibición en su apogeo superó su insignificante fuerza electoral con una influencia decisiva en las políticas públicas. estando en 1869 en una convención en Chicago organizada por el Rev. John Russell de Michigan. Su concepción fue impulsada por varios factores, entre ellos el fracaso de los funcionarios públicos para hacer cumplir las leyes de prohibición existentes a nivel local y estatal, la falta de apoyo a la prohibición por parte de los partidos republicano y demócrata, y la irritante formación de la Asociación de Cerveceros de los Estados Unidos. Los candidatos fueron presentados inmediatamente en nueve elecciones locales y estatales, de 1869 a 1871. Las plataformas del Partido de la Prohibición incluían con frecuencia la prohibición del juego, el sufragio femenino, la reforma monetaria y penitenciaria y la educación pública gratuita. En 1872, se programaron candidatos a presidente y vicepresidente; el mejor resultado se produjo en 1892 con 271.000 votos recibidos por John Bidwell para presidente. El Partido de la Prohibición se alió con otras organizaciones cuyos objetivos eran bastante similares, incluida la Unión de Mujeres Cristianas por la Templanza (1874), la Anti-Saloon League (1893) y varias Sociedades de templanza de iglesias protestantes. La mayor victoria del partido no se produjo a través de las urnas, sino por la presión de las bases sobre los legisladores nacionales. El Congreso aprobó la Enmienda 18, que prohibió la fabricación y venta de bebidas alcohólicas en todo el país. Fue ratificado en 1919. La prohibición fue un fracaso general y el partido fue testigo del punto más bajo de sus esperanzas con la derogación de la Enmienda en 1933. Uno de varios pequeños terceros, el Partido de la Prohibición ha sobrevivido hasta el siglo XXI; su agenda es la misma y promulga un enfoque conservador para la mayoría de las políticas públicas. La Universidad de Michigan alberga algunos de sus documentos históricos, mientras que otros materiales se encuentran en Denver, Colorado.


Prohibición: un estudio de caso de reforma progresiva

El movimiento de templanza, que desalienta el uso de bebidas alcohólicas, ha sido activo e influyente en los Estados Unidos desde al menos la década de 1830. Dado que el consumo de alcohol a menudo se asociaba con males sociales como la pobreza y la locura, la templanza a menudo iba de la mano con otros movimientos de reforma. Desde la década de 1850 en adelante, el movimiento de templanza centró gran parte de sus esfuerzos en los inmigrantes irlandeses y alemanes.

Los defensores de la templanza no siempre enfatizaron la prohibición del consumo de alcohol. Pero a finales del siglo XIX, lo hicieron. El movimiento de prohibición logró éxitos iniciales a nivel local y estatal. Tuvo más éxito en los estados rurales del sur y el oeste, y menos en los estados más urbanos. A principios del siglo XX, la prohibición era un movimiento nacional.

La prohibición exhibió muchas de las características de la mayoría de las reformas progresistas. Es decir, estaba preocupado por el tejido moral de la sociedad, estaba apoyado principalmente por las clases medias y tenía como objetivo controlar los "intereses" (destiladores de licores) y sus conexiones con políticos venales y corruptos en los gobiernos de la ciudad, el estado y el país. . Sin embargo, no fue hasta la entrada de Estados Unidos en la Gran Guerra que los prohibicionistas pudieron asegurar la promulgación de la legislación nacional. En 1918, el Congreso aprobó la 18ª Enmienda a la Constitución, que prohíbe la fabricación, el transporte y la venta de bebidas alcohólicas. Los estados ratificaron la Enmienda el próximo año.

Herbert Hoover calificó la prohibición como un "experimento noble", pero el esfuerzo por regular el comportamiento de las personas pronto se encontró con problemas. La aplicación de la prohibición se volvió muy difícil. Pronto, términos como "contrabandista", "ginebra de bañera" y "bar clandestino" se convirtieron en palabras familiares. Las bandas de matones se hicieron más poderosas a medida que traficaban con alcohol. En la década de 1930, la mayoría de los estadounidenses se había cansado del noble experimento y la 18ª Enmienda fue derogada.


Etiqueta: fiesta de la prohibición

Mientras investigábamos otro tema, los neoyorquinos que se convirtieron en presidente, nos topamos con un delicioso (o tal vez seco) factoide para compartir.

La Fiesta de la Prohibición puede parecer un retroceso a los días de los bares clandestinos y Jay Gatsby, pero en realidad es el tercero más antiguo de los Estados Unidos. El Partido ha presentado un candidato en todas las elecciones desde 1872 y ya tiene un candidato para 2020, lo que, de alguna manera, los prepara más que los demócratas para las próximas elecciones.

Entonces, ¿qué representa el Partido de la Prohibición?

Como era de esperar, la plataforma Prohibition Party & # 8217s enfatiza la desaprobación del alcohol, el tabaco, el cannabis y todas las drogas & # 8220hard & # 8221. Incluso llega a prometer apoyo a los agricultores que cambian de cultivar tabaco y uvas por vino a otros cultivos.

Pero eso no es todo. El partido cree en el cambio climático y promete & # 8220 [cooperación] con otras naciones para mitigar sus posibles efectos & # 8221. El partido también señala que & # 8220 no cederá nuestra soberanía en este ni en ningún otro aspecto & #. 8221 Es fuertemente pro-vida, apoya una enmienda constitucional que otorgaría poder de matrimonio a los cuerpos religiosos solamente, respalda la NRA y aboga por la abolición del Sistema de la Reserva Federal.

En 2016, el Partido de la Prohibición recibió más de 5.000 votos, de unos 138 millones de votos emitidos. No fue un gran año, pero fue una gran mejora con respecto a las elecciones de 2012: el partido recibió 518 votos en ese momento. Dado que el partido recibió sólo 208 votos en 2000, se podría decir que disfruta de una nueva ola de apoyo.

Desde que presentó a un candidato presidencial por primera vez en 1872, el Partido de la Prohibición ha disfrutado de picos de popularidad. Se esperan algunos: cuando el movimiento de la Prohibición comenzó a ganar fuerza en la década de 1880 y en el cambio de siglo, el partido recibió más de 200.000 votos (en 1888, 1892, 1900, 1904, 1908, 1912 y 1916). El año en que la prohibición se convirtió en ley (1920), el recuento de votos del partido descendió, a unos 188.000, tal vez porque la prohibición pasó en enero y las elecciones no se llevaron a cabo hasta noviembre.

Desde entonces, el Partido de la Prohibición nunca alcanzó las mismas alturas de popularidad. Sin embargo, ha visto oleadas de apoyo en otros momentos a lo largo de la historia. Obtuvo más de 100,000 votos en 1948, la primera vez desde 1920 que alcanzó los seis dígitos, y vio un ligero aumento en el apoyo entre 1956 (41,937 votos) y 1960 (46, 2013 votos). Desde entonces, el apoyo al Partido de la Prohibición experimentó una fuerte caída.

En nuestro mundo político en blanco y negro (o quizás rojo y azul) de burros y elefantes, la Fiesta de la Prohibición se destaca con su propio símbolo: el camello. ¿Por qué un camello? En su sitio, explican que su mascota comparte sus orígenes con los republicanos y demócratas, un caricaturista político llamado Thomas Nast. Asignó el burro a los demócratas, el elefante al republicano y el camello a los prohibicionistas. ¿Por qué?

& # 8220Nast eligió el camello para representar al Partido de la Prohibición porque, como los prohibicionistas en general, los camellos no beben muy a menudo y, cuando beben, solo beben agua. Originalmente un dromedario, el símbolo se cambió más tarde por el camello bactriano para no asociarse con el logotipo del camello en los cigarrillos Camel. & # 8221

La fiesta de la prohibición

A medida que ciertos escalones de la sociedad se inclinan hacia la bebida —con el aumento de los cócteles sin alcohol— y a medida que muchos estadounidenses se cansan de los dos partidos principales, tal vez el Partido de la Prohibición tenga otro oleaje de apoyo.


De la legislación de prohibición estatal a la federal

Para 1916, 23 de los 48 estados habían aprobado leyes contra los salones. Muchos fueron más allá, prohibiendo también la fabricación de bebidas alcohólicas. Después de las elecciones al Congreso de ese año, los miembros de & # x201Cdry & # x201D (como se conoció a quienes favorecían una prohibición nacional del alcohol) obtuvieron una mayoría de dos tercios sobre & # x201Cwet & # x201D en el Congreso de los Estados Unidos. El 16 de enero de 1919, el número requerido de estados ratificó la 18ª Enmienda, que prohibía la fabricación, el transporte y la venta de alcohol dentro de los Estados Unidos y entraría en vigor el siguiente enero.

Más tarde, en 1919, se promulgó la Ley de Prohibición Nacional & # x2013 popularmente conocida como la Ley Volstead, después de que su patrocinador legislativo, el Representante Andrew J. Volstead de Minnesota & # x2013, fuera promulgada para proporcionar al gobierno los medios para hacer cumplir la Prohibición. Las lagunas en esta ley, como el hecho de que el licor utilizado con fines medicinales, sacramentales o industriales seguía siendo legal, al igual que las bebidas de uva o frutas preparadas en casa, así como los diversos grados de apoyo del gobierno a lo largo de la década de 1920, obstaculizaron la aplicación de la Prohibición, y seguiría siendo más un ideal que una realidad.


Contenido

El 18 de noviembre de 1918, antes de la ratificación de la Decimoctava Enmienda, el Congreso de los Estados Unidos aprobó la Ley de Prohibición en Tiempo de Guerra temporal, que prohibió la venta de bebidas alcohólicas con un contenido de alcohol superior al 1,28%. [11] (Esta ley, que tenía la intención de ahorrar grano para el esfuerzo bélico, se aprobó después de que se firmara el armisticio que puso fin a la Primera Guerra Mundial el 11 de noviembre de 1918). La Ley de Prohibición en Tiempo de Guerra entró en vigor el 30 de junio de 1919, con julio El 1 de enero de 1919 se hizo conocido como el "sediento primero". [12] [13]

El Senado de los Estados Unidos propuso la Decimoctava Enmienda el 18 de diciembre de 1917. Tras ser aprobada por un estado número 36 el 16 de enero de 1919, la enmienda fue ratificada como parte de la Constitución. Según los términos de la enmienda, el país se secó un año después, el 17 de enero de 1920. [14] [15]

El 28 de octubre de 1919, el Congreso aprobó la Ley Volstead, el nombre popular de la Ley de Prohibición Nacional, sobre el veto del presidente Woodrow Wilson. La ley estableció la definición legal de licores embriagantes, así como las sanciones por producirlos. [16] Aunque la Ley Volstead prohibió la venta de alcohol, el gobierno federal carecía de recursos para hacerla cumplir.

La Prohibición logró reducir la cantidad de licor consumido, las tasas de muerte por cirrosis, las admisiones a hospitales psiquiátricos estatales por psicosis alcohólica, los arrestos por embriaguez pública y las tasas de absentismo. [5] [17] [18] Si bien muchos afirman que la Ley Seca estimuló la proliferación de una actividad criminal clandestina, organizada y generalizada, [19] dos académicos [ ¿Quién? ] sostienen que no hubo un aumento en el crimen durante la era de la Prohibición y que tales afirmaciones están "arraigadas en lo impresionista más que en lo fáctico". [20] [21] En 1925, había entre 30.000 y 100.000 clubes clandestinos solo en la ciudad de Nueva York. [22] La oposición húmeda habló de la libertad personal, los nuevos ingresos fiscales de la cerveza y el licor legales y el flagelo del crimen organizado. [23]

El 22 de marzo de 1933, el presidente Franklin Roosevelt promulgó la Ley Cullen-Harrison, legalizando la cerveza con un contenido de alcohol del 3,2% (en peso) y el vino con un contenido de alcohol igualmente bajo. El 5 de diciembre de 1933, la ratificación de la Vigésima Primera Enmienda derogó la Decimoctava Enmienda. Sin embargo, la ley federal de los Estados Unidos todavía prohíbe la fabricación de bebidas espirituosas destiladas sin cumplir con numerosos requisitos de licencia que hacen que no sea práctico producir bebidas espirituosas para uso personal. [24]

Orígenes Editar

El consumo de bebidas alcohólicas ha sido un tema polémico en Estados Unidos desde el período colonial. En mayo de 1657, el Tribunal General de Massachusetts hizo la venta de licor fuerte "ya sea conocido por el nombre de ron, whisky, vino, brandy, etc." a los indios ilegales. [25] [ dudoso - discutir ]

En general, los controles sociales informales en el hogar y la comunidad ayudaron a mantener la expectativa de que el abuso de alcohol era inaceptable. "La embriaguez fue condenada y castigada, pero sólo como un abuso de un regalo dado por Dios. La bebida en sí no fue considerada culpable, como tampoco la comida merecía culpa por el pecado de la glotonería. El exceso fue una indiscreción personal". [26] Cuando fallaron los controles informales, hubo opciones legales.

Poco después de que Estados Unidos obtuviera la independencia, se llevó a cabo la Rebelión del Whisky en el oeste de Pensilvania en protesta por los impuestos impuestos por el gobierno al whisky. Aunque los impuestos se recaudaron principalmente para ayudar a pagar la deuda nacional recién formada, también recibió el apoyo de algunos reformadores sociales, que esperaban que un "impuesto al pecado" aumentaría la conciencia pública sobre los efectos nocivos del alcohol. [27] El impuesto al whisky fue derogado después de que el Partido Demócrata-Republicano de Thomas Jefferson, que se oponía al Partido Federalista de Alexander Hamilton, llegara al poder en 1800. [28]

Benjamin Rush, uno de los médicos más destacados de finales del siglo XVIII, creía en la moderación más que en la prohibición. En su tratado, "La investigación sobre los efectos de los espíritus ardientes en el cuerpo y la mente humanos" (1784), Rush argumentó que el uso excesivo de alcohol era perjudicial para la salud física y psicológica, y etiquetaba la embriaguez como una enfermedad. [29] Aparentemente influenciados por la creencia ampliamente discutida de Rush, alrededor de 200 agricultores en una comunidad de Connecticut formaron una asociación de templanza en 1789. Se formaron asociaciones similares en Virginia en 1800 y Nueva York en 1808. [30] En una década, otros grupos de templanza habían formada en ocho estados, algunas de las cuales son organizaciones estatales. Las palabras de Rush y otros reformadores tempranos de la templanza sirvieron para dicotomizar el uso de alcohol para hombres y mujeres. Mientras que los hombres disfrutaban de la bebida y, a menudo, la consideraban vital para su salud, las mujeres que comenzaron a abrazar la ideología de la "verdadera maternidad" se abstuvieron de consumir alcohol. Las mujeres de clase media, que eran consideradas las autoridades morales de sus hogares, rechazaban consecuentemente el consumo de alcohol, que consideraban una amenaza para el hogar. [30] En 1830, en promedio, los estadounidenses consumían 1,7 botellas de licor fuerte por semana, tres veces la cantidad consumida en 2010. [19]

Desarrollo del movimiento de prohibición Editar

La Sociedad Estadounidense de Templanza (ATS), formada en 1826, ayudó a iniciar el primer movimiento de templanza y sirvió como base para muchos grupos posteriores. En 1835, la ATS había alcanzado 1,5 millones de miembros, y las mujeres constituían entre el 35% y el 60% de sus capítulos. [31]

El movimiento de la Prohibición, también conocido como la cruzada seca, continuó en la década de 1840, encabezado por denominaciones religiosas pietistas, especialmente los metodistas. A finales del siglo XIX, el movimiento por la templanza amplió su enfoque de la abstinencia para incluir todos los comportamientos e instituciones relacionados con el consumo de alcohol. Predicadores como el reverendo Mark A. Matthews relacionaron los salones de venta de licores con la corrupción política. [32]

Algunos éxitos del movimiento se lograron en la década de 1850, incluida la ley de Maine, adoptada en 1851, que prohibió la fabricación y venta de licor. Antes de su derogación en 1856, 12 estados siguieron el ejemplo de Maine en la prohibición total. [33] El movimiento de templanza perdió fuerza y ​​fue marginado durante la Guerra Civil estadounidense (1861-1865). Después de la guerra, los moralistas sociales se volcaron hacia otros temas, como la poligamia mormona y el movimiento de templanza. [34] [35] [36]

La cruzada seca fue revivida por el Partido Nacional de la Prohibición, fundado en 1869, y la Unión de Mujeres Cristianas por la Templanza (WCTU), fundada en 1873. La WCTU defendió la prohibición del alcohol como método para prevenir, a través de la educación, el abuso de los maridos alcohólicos. [37] Los miembros de WCTU creían que si su organización podía llegar a los niños con su mensaje, podría crear un sentimiento seco que llevara a la prohibición. Frances Willard, la segunda presidenta de la WCTU, sostuvo que los objetivos de la organización eran crear una "unión de mujeres de todas las denominaciones, con el propósito de educar a los jóvenes, formar un mejor sentimiento público, reformar las clases de bebida, transformar por el poder de la gracia divina a los que están esclavizados por el alcohol, y la remoción de la tienda de tragos de nuestras calles por ley ". [38] Aunque todavía se les negaban los privilegios de voto universales, las mujeres en la WCTU siguieron la doctrina "Do Everything" de Frances Willard y utilizaron la templanza como un método para entrar en política y promover otros temas progresistas como la reforma penitenciaria y las leyes laborales. [39]

En 1881 Kansas se convirtió en el primer estado en prohibir las bebidas alcohólicas en su Constitución. [40] Arrestada más de 30 veces y multada y encarcelada en múltiples ocasiones, la activista de la prohibición Carrie Nation intentó hacer cumplir la prohibición estatal del consumo de alcohol. [41] Entró en los salones, regañando a los clientes y usando su hacha para destruir botellas de licor. Nation reclutó mujeres en el Carrie Nation Prohibition Group, que ella también dirigió. Si bien las técnicas de vigilante de Nation eran raras, otros activistas hicieron valer la causa seca entrando en las tabernas, cantando, rezando e instando a los taberneros a dejar de vender alcohol. [42] Otros estados secos, especialmente los del sur, promulgaron leyes de prohibición, al igual que los condados individuales dentro de un estado.

Los casos judiciales también debatieron el tema de la prohibición. Si bien algunos casos fallaron en oposición, la tendencia general fue hacia el apoyo. En Mugler contra Kansas (1887), el juez Harlan comentó: "No podemos dejar de ver el hecho, que todos saben, de que la salud pública, la moral pública y la seguridad pública pueden verse amenazadas por el uso generalizado de bebidas embriagantes o Hecho establecido por estadísticas accesibles a todos, que la ociosidad, el desorden, la pobreza y la delincuencia que existen en el país, son, en cierta medida, atribuibles a este mal ". [43] En apoyo de la prohibición, Crowley contra Christensen (1890), comentó: "Las estadísticas de cada estado muestran una mayor cantidad de crimen y miseria atribuible al uso de licores ardientes obtenidos en estos salones de licores al por menor que a cualquier otra fuente". [43]

La proliferación de tabernas de barrio en la era posterior a la Guerra Civil se convirtió en un fenómeno de una fuerza laboral urbana cada vez más industrializada. Los bares de trabajadores eran lugares de reunión social populares del lugar de trabajo y la vida familiar. La industria cervecera participó activamente en el establecimiento de las tabernas como una base lucrativa de consumidores en su cadena comercial. La mayoría de las veces, las tabernas estaban vinculadas a una cervecería específica, donde la operación del tabernero era financiada por una cervecera y estaba obligada por contrato a vender el producto de la cervecera con exclusión de las marcas competidoras. El modelo de negocio de una taberna a menudo incluía la oferta de un almuerzo gratis, donde la factura de la tarifa comúnmente consistía en alimentos muy salados destinados a inducir la sed y la compra de bebidas. [44] Durante la Era Progresista (1890-1920), la hostilidad hacia las tabernas y su influencia política se generalizó, con la Anti-Saloon League reemplazando al Partido de la Prohibición y la Unión de Mujeres Cristianas por la Templanza como el defensor más influyente de la prohibición, después de estos últimos. dos grupos expandieron sus esfuerzos para apoyar otros temas de reforma social, como el sufragio femenino, en su plataforma de prohibición. [45]

La prohibición fue una fuerza importante en la política estatal y local desde la década de 1840 hasta la de 1930. Numerosos estudios históricos demostraron que las fuerzas políticas involucradas eran etnoreligiosas. [46] La prohibición fue apoyada por los secos, principalmente denominaciones protestantes pietistas que incluían metodistas, bautistas del norte, bautistas del sur, presbiterianos de la nueva escuela, discípulos de Cristo, congregacionalistas, cuáqueros y luteranos escandinavos, pero también incluía la Unión Católica de Abstinencia Total de América. y, hasta cierto punto, los Santos de los Últimos Días. Estos grupos religiosos identificaron las tabernas como políticamente corruptas y la bebida como un pecado personal. Otras organizaciones activas incluyeron la Federación de Iglesias de Mujeres, la Cruzada de Templanza de Mujeres y el Departamento de Instrucción Científica de la Templanza. Se opusieron a los mocos, principalmente protestantes litúrgicos (episcopales y luteranos alemanes) y católicos romanos, que denunciaron la idea de que el gobierno debería definir la moralidad. [47] Incluso en el bastión húmedo de la ciudad de Nueva York hubo un movimiento de prohibición activo, liderado por grupos eclesiásticos noruegos y activistas laborales afroamericanos que creían que la prohibición beneficiaría a los trabajadores, especialmente afroamericanos. Los comerciantes de té y los fabricantes de fuentes de refrescos generalmente apoyaron la prohibición, creyendo que la prohibición del alcohol aumentaría las ventas de sus productos. [48] ​​Un operador particularmente eficaz en el frente político fue Wayne Wheeler de la Anti-Saloon League, [49] que hizo de la Prohibición un tema cuña y logró que muchos candidatos a favor de la prohibición fueran elegidos. Viniendo de Ohio, su profundo resentimiento por el alcohol comenzó a una edad temprana. Fue herido en una granja por un trabajador que estaba borracho. Este evento transformó a Wheeler. Comenzando bajo en las filas, rápidamente ascendió debido a su odio profundamente arraigado al alcohol. Más tarde se dio cuenta de que para promover el movimiento necesitaría más aprobación pública y rápido. Este fue el comienzo de su política llamada 'wheelerism' donde usó los medios de comunicación para hacer parecer que el público en general estaba "al tanto" de un tema específico. Wheeler se hizo conocido como el "jefe seco" debido a su influencia y poder. [50]

La prohibición representó un conflicto entre los valores urbanos y rurales que surgían en los Estados Unidos. Dada la afluencia masiva de migrantes a los centros urbanos de los Estados Unidos, muchas personas dentro del movimiento de prohibición asociaron el crimen y el comportamiento moralmente corrupto de las ciudades estadounidenses con sus grandes poblaciones de inmigrantes. Los salones frecuentados por inmigrantes en estas ciudades a menudo eran frecuentados por políticos que querían obtener los votos de los inmigrantes a cambio de favores como ofertas de trabajo, asistencia legal y canastas de alimentos. Por lo tanto, las tabernas se vieron como un caldo de cultivo para la corrupción política. [51]

La mayoría de los economistas de principios del siglo XX estaban a favor de la promulgación de la Decimoctava Enmienda (Prohibición). [52] Simon Patten, uno de los principales defensores de la prohibición, predijo que la prohibición eventualmente sucedería en los Estados Unidos por razones competitivas y evolutivas. El profesor de economía de Yale, Irving Fisher, que era un árido, escribió extensamente sobre la prohibición, incluido un artículo que presentaba un caso económico a favor de la prohibición. [53] A Fisher se le atribuye haber proporcionado los criterios con los que se podrían medir las prohibiciones futuras, como la de la marihuana, en términos de delincuencia, salud y productividad. Por ejemplo, el "lunes azul" se refería a la resaca que experimentaban los trabajadores después de un fin de semana de consumo excesivo de alcohol, lo que provocaba que los lunes fueran un día productivo desperdiciado. [54] Pero una nueva investigación ha desacreditado la investigación de Fisher, que se basó en experimentos no controlados independientemente, se sigue citando su cifra de $ 6 mil millones para las ganancias anuales de la Prohibición en los Estados Unidos. [55]

En una reacción violenta a la realidad emergente de un cambio demográfico estadounidense, muchos prohibicionistas se suscribieron a la doctrina del nativismo, en la que respaldaban la noción de que el éxito de Estados Unidos era el resultado de su ascendencia anglosajona blanca. Esta creencia fomentó el resentimiento hacia las comunidades de inmigrantes urbanos, que típicamente argumentaron a favor de la abolición de la prohibición. [56] Además, los sentimientos nativistas fueron parte de un proceso más amplio de americanización que tuvo lugar durante el mismo período de tiempo. [57]

Otras dos enmiendas a la Constitución fueron defendidas por cruzados secos para ayudar a su causa. Uno fue concedido en la Decimosexta Enmienda (1913), que reemplazó los impuestos sobre el alcohol que financiaban al gobierno federal con un impuesto sobre la renta federal. [58] El otro fue el sufragio femenino, que se otorgó después de la aprobación de la Decimonovena Enmienda en 1920, ya que las mujeres tendían a apoyar la prohibición, las organizaciones de templanza tendían a apoyar el sufragio femenino. [58]

En las elecciones presidenciales de 1916, el titular demócrata, Woodrow Wilson, y el candidato republicano, Charles Evans Hughes, ignoraron el tema de la prohibición, al igual que las plataformas políticas de ambos partidos. Los demócratas y republicanos tenían facciones fuertes y húmedas, y se esperaba que las elecciones estuvieran cerradas, sin que ninguno de los candidatos quisiera alienar a ninguna parte de su base política.

En marzo de 1917, se reunió el 65º Congreso, en el que los secos superaron en número a los húmedos por 140 a 64 en el Partido Demócrata y 138 a 62 entre los republicanos. [59] Con la declaración de guerra de Estados Unidos contra Alemania en abril, los estadounidenses de origen alemán, una fuerza importante contra la prohibición, fueron marginados y sus protestas posteriormente ignoradas. Además, surgió una nueva justificación para la prohibición: prohibir la producción de bebidas alcohólicas permitiría que se dedicaran más recursos al esfuerzo bélico, especialmente granos que de otro modo se utilizarían para fabricar alcohol. Si bien la prohibición en tiempos de guerra fue una chispa para el movimiento, [60] la Primera Guerra Mundial terminó antes de que se promulgara la Prohibición a nivel nacional.

Se presentó en el Congreso una resolución que pedía una enmienda constitucional para lograr la Prohibición en todo el país y ambas cámaras la aprobaron en diciembre de 1917. Para el 16 de enero de 1919, la Enmienda había sido ratificada por 36 de los 48 estados, convirtiéndola en ley. Finalmente, solo dos estados, Connecticut y Rhode Island, optaron por no ratificarlo. [61] [62] El 28 de octubre de 1919, el Congreso aprobó una legislación habilitante, conocida como la Ley Volstead, para hacer cumplir la Decimoctava Enmienda cuando entró en vigor en 1920.

Inicio de la prohibición nacional (enero de 1920) Editar

La prohibición comenzó el 17 de enero de 1920, cuando entró en vigor la Ley Volstead. [64] Un total de 1.520 agentes de Prohibición Federal (policía) se encargaron de hacer cumplir la ley.

Los partidarios de la Enmienda pronto se sintieron seguros de que no sería derogada. Uno de sus creadores, el senador Morris Sheppard, bromeó diciendo que "hay tantas posibilidades de derogar la Decimoctava Enmienda como de que un colibrí vuele al planeta Marte con el Monumento a Washington atado a la cola". [sesenta y cinco]

Al mismo tiempo, surgieron canciones denunciando el acto. Después de que Eduardo, Príncipe de Gales, regresara al Reino Unido luego de su gira por Canadá en 1919, le contó a su padre, el Rey Jorge V, una canción que había escuchado en una ciudad fronteriza:

Veinticuatro yanquis, sintiéndose muy secos,
Cruzó la frontera para tomar un trago de centeno.
Cuando se abrió el centeno, los yanquis comenzaron a cantar,
"¡Dios bendiga a América, pero Dios salve al Rey!" [66]

La prohibición se volvió muy controvertida entre los profesionales médicos porque los médicos de la época prescribían ampliamente el alcohol con fines terapéuticos. El Congreso celebró audiencias sobre el valor medicinal de la cerveza en 1921. Posteriormente, los médicos de todo el país presionaron para que se derogara la Prohibición en su aplicación a los licores medicinales. [67] De 1921 a 1930, los médicos ganaron alrededor de $ 40 millones por recetas de whisky. [68]

Si bien la fabricación, importación, venta y transporte de alcohol era ilegal en los Estados Unidos, la Sección 29 de la Ley Volstead permitía que el vino y la sidra se hicieran en casa con frutas, pero no con cerveza. Se podían producir hasta 200 galones de vino y sidra por año, y algunos viñedos cultivaban uvas para uso doméstico. La ley no prohíbe el consumo de alcohol. Muchas personas almacenaron vinos y licores para su uso personal a fines de 1919 antes de que las ventas de bebidas alcohólicas se volvieran ilegales en enero de 1920.

Dado que el alcohol era legal en los países vecinos, las destilerías y cervecerías en Canadá, México y el Caribe florecieron a medida que sus productos eran consumidos por estadounidenses visitantes o introducidos ilegalmente en los Estados Unidos. El río Detroit, que forma parte de la frontera de Estados Unidos con Canadá, era muy difícil de controlar, especialmente el tráfico de ron en Windsor, Canadá. Cuando el gobierno de los Estados Unidos se quejó ante los británicos de que funcionarios en Nassau, Bahamas estaban socavando la ley estadounidense, el jefe de la Oficina Colonial Británica se negó a intervenir. [69] Winston Churchill creía que la Prohibición era "una afrenta a toda la historia de la humanidad". [70]

A tres agencias federales se les asignó la tarea de hacer cumplir la Ley Volstead: la Oficina de Cumplimiento de la Ley de la Guardia Costera de EE. UU., [71] [72] la Oficina de Prohibición del Servicio de Impuestos Internos (IRS) del Tesoro de EE. Prohibición. [75] [76]

Contrabando y acaparamiento de suministros viejos Editar

Ya en 1925, el periodista H. L. Mencken creía que la Prohibición no estaba funcionando. [77] El historiador David Oshinsky, resumiendo el trabajo de Daniel Okrent, escribió que "la prohibición funcionó mejor cuando se dirigió a su objetivo principal: los pobres de la clase trabajadora". [78] La historiadora Lizabeth Cohen escribe: "Una familia rica podría tener un sótano lleno de licor y arreglárselas, al parecer, pero si una familia pobre tuviera una botella de cerveza casera, habría problemas". [79] La gente de la clase trabajadora estaba inflamada por el hecho de que sus empleadores podían echar mano de un escondite privado mientras que ellos, los empleados, no podían. [80] Una semana después de la entrada en vigor de la Prohibición, se pusieron a la venta pequeños alambiques portátiles en todo el país. [81]

Antes de que la Decimoctava Enmienda entrara en vigor en enero de 1920, muchas de las clases altas almacenaban alcohol para el consumo legal en el hogar después de que comenzara la Ley Seca. Compraron los inventarios de los minoristas y mayoristas de licores, vaciando sus almacenes, salones y almacenes de clubes. El presidente Woodrow Wilson trasladó su propio suministro de bebidas alcohólicas a su residencia en Washington después de que terminó su mandato. Su sucesor, Warren G. Harding, trasladó su propio gran suministro a la Casa Blanca. [82] [83]

Después de que la Decimoctava Enmienda se convirtió en ley, el contrabando se generalizó. En los primeros seis meses de 1920, el gobierno federal abrió 7.291 casos por violaciones de la Ley Volstead. [84] In the first complete fiscal year of 1921, the number of cases violating the Volstead Act jumped to 29,114 violations and would rise dramatically over the next thirteen years. [85]

Grape juice was not restricted by Prohibition, even though if it was allowed to sit for sixty days it would ferment and turn to wine with a twelve percent alcohol content. Many folks took advantage of this as grape juice output quadrupled during the Prohibition era. [86] Vine-Glo was sold for this purpose and included a specific warning telling people how to make wine from it.

To prevent bootleggers from using industrial ethyl alcohol to produce illegal beverages, the federal government ordered the poisoning of industrial alcohols. In response, bootleggers hired chemists who successfully renatured the alcohol to make it drinkable. As a response, the Treasury Department required manufacturers to add more deadly poisons, including the particularly deadly methyl alcohol, consisting of 4 parts methanol, 2.25 parts pyridine base, and 0.5 parts benzene per 100 parts ethyl alcohol. [87] New York City medical examiners prominently opposed these policies because of the danger to human life. As many as 10,000 people died from drinking denatured alcohol before Prohibition ended. [88] New York City medical examiner Charles Norris believed the government took responsibility for murder when they knew the poison was not deterring consumption and they continued to poison industrial alcohol (which would be used in drinking alcohol) anyway. Norris remarked: "The government knows it is not stopping drinking by putting poison in alcohol . [Y]et it continues its poisoning processes, heedless of the fact that people determined to drink are daily absorbing that poison. Knowing this to be true, the United States government must be charged with the moral responsibility for the deaths that poisoned liquor causes, although it cannot be held legally responsible." [88]

Another lethal substance that was often substituted for alcohol was Sterno, a fuel commonly known as "canned heat." Forcing the substance through a makeshift filter, such as a handkerchief, created a rough liquor substitute however, the result was poisonous, though not often lethal. [89]

Making alcohol at home was common among some families with wet sympathies during Prohibition. Stores sold grape concentrate with warning labels that listed the steps that should be avoided to prevent the juice from fermenting into wine. Some drugstores sold "medical wine" with around a 22% alcohol content. In order to justify the sale, the wine was given a medicinal taste. [89] Home-distilled hard liquor was called bathtub gin in northern cities, and moonshine in rural areas of Virginia, Kentucky, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, and Tennessee. Homebrewing good hard liquor was easier than brewing good beer. [89] Since selling privately-distilled alcohol was illegal and bypassed government taxation, law enforcement officers relentlessly pursued manufacturers. [90] In response, bootleggers modified their cars and trucks by enhancing the engines and suspensions to make faster vehicles that, they assumed, would improve their chances of outrunning and escaping agents of the Bureau of Prohibition, commonly called "revenue agents" or "revenuers". These cars became known as "moonshine runners" or " 'shine runners". [91] Shops with wet sympathies were also known to participate in the underground liquor market, by loading their stocks with ingredients for liquors, including bénédictine, vermouth, scotch mash, and even ethyl alcohol anyone could purchase these ingredients legally. [92]

In October 1930, just two weeks before the congressional midterm elections, bootlegger George Cassiday—"the man in the green hat"—came forward and told members of Congress how he had bootlegged for ten years. One of the few bootleggers ever to tell his story, Cassiday wrote five front-page articles for El Washington Post, in which he estimated that 80% of congressmen and senators drank. The Democrats in the North were mostly wets, and in the 1932 election, they made major gains. The wets argued that Prohibition was not stopping crime, and was actually causing the creation of large-scale, well-funded, and well-armed criminal syndicates. As Prohibition became increasingly unpopular, especially in urban areas, its repeal was eagerly anticipated. [93] Wets had the organization and the initiative. They pushed the argument that states and localities needed the tax money. President Herbert Hoover proposed a new constitutional amendment that was vague on particulars and satisfied neither side. Franklin Roosevelt's Democratic platform promised repeal of the 18th Amendment. [94] [95]

When Prohibition was repealed in 1933, many bootleggers and suppliers with wet sympathies simply moved into the legitimate liquor business. Some crime syndicates moved their efforts into expanding their protection rackets to cover legal liquor sales and other business areas. [96]

Medical liquor Edit

Doctors were able to prescribe medicinal alcohol for their patients. After just six months of prohibition, over 15,000 doctors and 57,000 pharmacists received licenses to prescribe or sell medicinal alcohol. De acuerdo a Gastro Obscura,

Physicians wrote an estimated 11 million prescriptions a year throughout the 1920s, and Prohibition Commissioner John F. Kramer even cited one doctor who wrote 475 prescriptions for whiskey in one day. It wasn’t tough for people to write—and fill—counterfeit subscriptions at pharmacies, either. Naturalmente, los contrabandistas compraron formularios de recetas de médicos corruptos y montaron estafas generalizadas. En 1931, 400 farmacéuticos y 1,000 médicos fueron atrapados en una estafa en la que los médicos vendieron formularios de prescripción firmados a contrabandistas. Solo 12 médicos y 13 farmacéuticos fueron acusados, y los acusados ​​enfrentaron una multa única de 50 dólares. Selling alcohol through drugstores became so much of a lucrative open secret that it’s name-checked in works such as The Great Gatsby. Historians speculate that Charles R. Walgreen, of Walgreen’s fame, expanded from 20 stores to a staggering 525 during the 1920s thanks to medicinal alcohol sales."

Enforcement Edit

Once Prohibition came into effect, the majority of U.S. citizens obeyed it. [17]

Some states like Maryland and New York refused Prohibition. [98] Enforcement of the law under the Eighteenth Amendment lacked a centralized authority. Clergymen were sometimes called upon to form vigilante groups to assist in the enforcement of Prohibition. [99] Furthermore, American geography contributed to the difficulties in enforcing Prohibition. The varied terrain of valleys, mountains, lakes, and swamps, as well as the extensive seaways, ports, and borders which the United States shared with Canada and Mexico made it exceedingly difficult for Prohibition agents to stop bootleggers given their lack of resources. Ultimately it was recognized with its repeal that the means by which the law was to be enforced were not pragmatic, and in many cases, the legislature did not match the general public opinion. [100] [101]

In Cicero, Illinois, (a suburb of Chicago) the prevalence of ethnic communities who had wet sympathies allowed prominent gang leader Al Capone to operate despite the presence of police. [102]

The Ku Klux Klan talked a great deal about denouncing bootleggers and threatened private vigilante action against known offenders. Despite its large membership in the mid-1920s, it was poorly organized and seldom had an impact. Indeed, the KKK after 1925 helped disparage any enforcement of Prohibition. [103]

Prohibition was a major blow to the alcoholic beverage industry and its repeal was a step toward the amelioration of one sector of the economy. An example of this is the case of St. Louis, one of the most important alcohol producers before prohibition started, which was ready to resume its position in the industry as soon as possible. Its major brewery had "50,000 barrels" of beer ready for distribution from March 22, 1933, and was the first alcohol producer to resupply the market others soon followed. After repeal, stores obtained liquor licenses and restocked for business. After beer production resumed, thousands of workers found jobs in the industry again. [104]

Prohibition created a black market that competed with the formal economy, which came under pressure when the Great Depression struck in 1929. State governments urgently needed the tax revenue alcohol sales had generated. Franklin Roosevelt was elected in 1932 based in part on his promise to end prohibition, which influenced his support for ratifying the Twenty-first Amendment to repeal Prohibition. [105]

Naval Captain William H. Stayton was a prominent figure in the anti-prohibition fight, founding the Association Against the Prohibition Amendment in 1918. The AAPA was the largest of the nearly forty organizations that fought to end Prohibition. [106] Economic urgency played a large part in accelerating the advocacy for repeal. [107] The number of conservatives who pushed for prohibition in the beginning decreased. Many farmers who fought for prohibition now fought for repeal because of the negative effects it had on the agriculture business. [108] Prior to the 1920 implementation of the Volstead Act, approximately 14% of federal, state, and local tax revenues were derived from alcohol commerce. When the Great Depression hit and tax revenues plunged, the governments needed this revenue stream. [109] Millions could be made by taxing beer. There was controversy on whether the repeal should be a state or nationwide decision. [108] On March 22, 1933, President Franklin Roosevelt signed an amendment to the Volstead Act, known as the Cullen–Harrison Act, allowing the manufacture and sale of 3.2% beer (3.2% alcohol by weight, approximately 4% alcohol by volume) and light wines. The Volstead Act previously defined an intoxicating beverage as one with greater than 0.5% alcohol. [16] Upon signing the Cullen–Harrison Act, Roosevelt remarked: "I think this would be a good time for a beer." [110] According to a 2017 study in the journal Public Choice, representatives from traditional beer-producing states, as well as Democratic politicians, were most in favor of the bill, but politicians from many Southern states were most strongly opposed to the legislation. [111]

The Eighteenth Amendment was repealed on December 5, 1933, with the ratification of the Twenty-first Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. Despite the efforts of Heber J. Grant, president of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, the 21 Utah members of the constitutional convention voted unanimously on that day to ratify the Twenty-first Amendment, making Utah the 36th state to do so, and putting the repeal of the Eighteenth Amendment over the top in needed voting. [112] [113]

In the late 1930s, after its repeal, two fifths of Americans wished to reinstate national Prohibition. [114]

Post-repeal Edit

The Twenty-first Amendment does not prevent states from restricting or banning alcohol instead, it prohibits the "transportation or importation" of alcohol "into any State, Territory, or Possession of the United States" "in violation of the laws thereof", thus allowing state and local control of alcohol. [115] There are still numerous dry counties and municipalities in the United States that restrict or prohibit liquor sales. [116]

Additionally, many tribal governments prohibit alcohol on Indian reservations. Federal law also prohibits alcohol on Indian reservations, [117] although this law is currently only enforced when there is a concomitant violation of local tribal liquor laws. [118]

After its repeal, some former supporters openly admitted failure. For example, John D. Rockefeller, Jr., explained his view in a 1932 letter: [119]

When Prohibition was introduced, I hoped that it would be widely supported by public opinion and the day would soon come when the evil effects of alcohol would be recognized. I have slowly and reluctantly come to believe that this has not been the result. Instead, drinking has generally increased the speakeasy has replaced the saloon a vast army of lawbreakers has appeared many of our best citizens have openly ignored Prohibition respect for the law has been greatly lessened, and crime has increased to a level never seen before.

It is not clear whether Prohibition reduced per-capita consumption of alcohol. Some historians claim that alcohol consumption in the United States did not exceed pre-Prohibition levels until the 1960s [120] others claim that alcohol consumption reached the pre-Prohibition levels several years after its enactment, and has continued to rise. [121] Cirrhosis of the liver, a symptom of alcoholism, declined nearly two-thirds during Prohibition. [122] [123] In the decades after Prohibition, any stigma that had been associated with alcohol consumption was erased according to a Gallup Poll survey conducted almost every year since 1939, two-thirds of American adults age 18 and older drink alcohol. [124]

Shortly after World War II, a national opinion survey found that "About one-third of the people of the United States favor national prohibition." Upon repeal of national prohibition, 18 states continued prohibition at the state level. The last state, Mississippi, finally ended it in 1966. Almost two-thirds of all states adopted some form of local option which enabled residents in political subdivisions to vote for or against local prohibition. Therefore, despite the repeal of prohibition at the national level, 38% of the nation's population lived in areas with state or local prohibition. [125] : 221

In 2014, a CNN nationwide poll found that 18% of Americans "believed that drinking should be illegal". [126]

Prohibition in the early to mid-20th century was mostly fueled by the Protestant denominations in the Southern United States, a region dominated by socially conservative evangelical Protestantism with a very high Christian church attendance. [127] Generally, Evangelical Protestant denominations encouraged prohibition, while the Mainline Protestant denominations disapproved of its introduction. However, there were exceptions to this rule such as the Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod (German Confessional Lutherans), which is typically considered to be in scope of evangelical Protestantism. [128] Pietistic churches in the United States (especially Baptist churches, Methodists, Presbyterians, Congregationalists and others in the evangelical tradition) sought to end drinking and the saloon culture during the Third Party System. Liturgical ("high") churches (Roman Catholic, Episcopal, German Lutheran and others in the mainline tradition) opposed prohibition laws because they did not want the government to reduce the definition of morality to a narrow standard or to criminalize the common liturgical practice of using wine. [129]

Revivalism during the Second Great Awakening and the Third Great Awakening in the mid-to-late 19th century set the stage for the bond between pietistic Protestantism and prohibition in the United States: "The greater prevalence of revival religion within a population, the greater support for the Prohibition parties within that population." [130] Historian Nancy Koester argued that Prohibition was a "victory for progressives and social gospel activists battling poverty". [131] Prohibition also united progressives and revivalists. [132]

The temperance movement had popularized the belief that alcohol was the major cause of most personal and social problems and prohibition was seen as the solution to the nation's poverty, crime, violence, and other ills. [133] Upon ratification of the amendment, the famous evangelist Billy Sunday said that "The slums will soon be only a memory. We will turn our prisons into factories and our jails into storehouses and corncribs." Since alcohol was to be banned and since it was seen as the cause of most, if not all, crimes, some communities sold their jails. [134]

Alcohol consumption Edit

According to a 2010 review of the academic research on Prohibition, "On balance, Prohibition probably reduced per capita alcohol use and alcohol-related harm, but these benefits eroded over time as an organized black market developed and public support for NP declined." [7] One study reviewing city-level drunkenness arrests concluded that prohibition had an immediate effect, but no long-term effect. [135] And, yet another study examining "mortality, mental health and crime statistics" found that alcohol consumption fell, at first, to approximately 30 percent of its pre-Prohibition level but, over the next several years, increased to about 60–70 percent of its pre-prohibition level. [136] The Eighteenth Amendment prohibited the manufacture, sale and transportation of intoxicating beverages, however, it did not outlaw the possession or consumption of alcohol in the United States, which would allow legal loopholes for consumers possessing alcohol. [137]

Salud Editar

Research indicates that rates of cirrhosis of the liver declined significantly during Prohibition and increased after Prohibition's repeal. [3] [5] According to the historian Jack S. Blocker, Jr., "death rates from cirrhosis and alcoholism, alcoholic psychosis hospital admissions, and drunkenness arrests all declined steeply during the latter years of the 1910s, when both the cultural and the legal climate were increasingly inhospitable to drink, and in the early years after National Prohibition went into effect." [17] Studies examining the rates of cirrhosis deaths as a proxy for alcohol consumption estimated a decrease in consumption of 10–20%. [138] [139] [140] National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism studies show clear epidemiological evidence that "overall cirrhosis mortality rates declined precipitously with the introduction of Prohibition," despite widespread flouting of the law. [141]

Crime Edit

It is difficult to draw conclusions about Prohibition's impact on crime at the national level, as there were no uniform national statistics gathered about crime prior to 1930. [7] It has been argued that organized crime received a major boost from Prohibition. For example, one study found that organized crime in Chicago tripled during Prohibition. [142] Mafia groups and other criminal organizations and gangs had mostly limited their activities to prostitution, gambling, and theft until 1920, when organized "rum-running" or bootlegging emerged in response to Prohibition. [143] A profitable, often violent, black market for alcohol flourished. Prohibition provided a financial basis for organized crime to flourish. [144] In one study of more than 30 major U.S. cities during the Prohibition years of 1920 and 1921, the number of crimes increased by 24%. Additionally, theft and burglaries increased by 9%, homicides by 12.7%, assaults and battery rose by 13%, drug addiction by 44.6%, and police department costs rose by 11.4%. This was largely the result of "black-market violence" and the diversion of law enforcement resources elsewhere. Despite the Prohibition movement's hope that outlawing alcohol would reduce crime, the reality was that the Volstead Act led to higher crime rates than were experienced prior to Prohibition and the establishment of a black market dominated by criminal organizations. [145]

A 2016 NBER paper showed that South Carolina counties that enacted and enforced prohibition had homicide rates increase by about 30 to 60 percent relative to counties that did not enforce prohibition. [8] A 2009 study found an increase in homicides in Chicago during Prohibition. [9] However, some scholars have attributed the crime during the Prohibition era to increased urbanization, rather than to the criminalization of alcohol use. [146] In some cities, such as New York City, crime rates decreased during the Prohibition era. [21] Crime rates overall declined from the period of 1849 to 1951, making crime during the Prohibition period less likely to be attributed to the criminalization of alcohol alone. [21] [ ¿Por qué? ]

Mark H. Moore states that contrary to popular opinion, "violent crime did not increase dramatically during Prohibition" and that organized crime "existed before and after" Prohibition. [3] The historian Kenneth D. Rose corroborates historian John Burnham's assertion that during the 1920s "there is no firm evidence of this supposed upsurge in lawlessness" as "no statistics from this period dealing with crime are of any value whatsoever". [20] California State University, Chico historian Kenneth D. Rose writes: [20]

Opponents of prohibition were fond of claiming that the Great Experiment had created a gangster element that had unleashed a "crime wave" on a hapless America. The WONPR's Mrs. Coffin Van Rensselaer, for instance, insisted in 1932 that "the alarming crime wave, which had been piling up to unprecedented height" was a legacy of prohibition. But prohibition can hardly be held responsible for inventing crime, and while supplying illegal liquor proved to be lucrative, it was only an additional source of income to the more traditional criminal activities of gambling, loan sharking, racketeering, and prostitution. The notion of the prohibition-induced crime wave, despite its popularity during the 1920s, cannot be substantiated with any accuracy, because of the inadequacy of records kept by local police departments.

Along with other economic effects, the enactment and enforcement of Prohibition caused an increase in resource costs. During the 1920s the annual budget of the Bureau of Prohibition went from $4.4 million to $13.4 million. Additionally, the U.S. Coast Guard spent an average of $13 million annually on enforcement of prohibition laws. [147] These numbers do not take into account the costs to local and state governments.

Powers of the state Edit

According to Harvard University historian Lisa McGirr, Prohibition led to an expansion in the powers of the federal state, as well as helped shape the penal state. [148] According to academic Colin Agur, Prohibition specifically increased the usage of telephone wiretapping by federal agents for evidence collection. [149]

Discrimination Edit

According to Harvard University historian Lisa McGirr, Prohibition had a disproportionately adverse impact on African-Americans, immigrants and poor Whites, as law enforcement used alcohol prohibition against these communities. [148]

Economy Edit

According to Washington State University, Prohibition had a negative impact on the American economy. Prohibition caused the loss of at least $226 million per annum in tax revenues on liquors alone supporters of the prohibition expected an increase in the sales of non-alcoholic beverages to replace the money made from alcohol sales, but this did not happen. Furthermore, "Prohibition caused the shutdown of over 200 distilleries, a thousand breweries, and over 170,000 liquor stores". Finally, it is worth noting that "the amount of money used to enforce prohibition started at $6.3 million in 1921 and rose to $13.4 million in 1930, almost double the original amount". [150] A 2015 study estimated that the repeal of Prohibition had a net social benefit of "$432 million per annum in 1934–1937, about 0.33% of gross domestic product. Total benefits of $3.25 billion consist primarily of increased consumer and producer surplus, tax revenues, and reduced criminal violence costs." [151]

Other effects Edit

During the Prohibition era, rates of absenteeism decreased from 10% to 3%. [152] In Michigan, the Ford Motor Company documented "a decrease in absenteeism from 2,620 in April 1918 to 1,628 in May 1918." [18]

As saloons died out, public drinking lost much of its macho connotation, resulting in increased social acceptance of women drinking in the semi-public environment of the speakeasies. This new norm established women as a notable new target demographic for alcohol marketeers, who sought to expand their clientele. [114] Women thus found their way into the bootlegging business, with some discovering that they could make a living by selling alcohol with a minimal likelihood of suspicion by law enforcement. [153] Before prohibition, women who drank publicly in saloons or taverns, especially outside of urban centers like Chicago or New York, were seen as immoral or were likely to be prostitutes. [154]

Heavy drinkers and alcoholics were among the most affected groups during Prohibition. Those who were determined to find liquor could still do so, but those who saw their drinking habits as destructive typically had difficulty in finding the help they sought. Self-help societies had withered away along with the alcohol industry. In 1935 a new self-help group called Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) was founded. [114]

Prohibition also had an effect on the music industry in the United States, specifically with jazz. Speakeasies became very popular, and the Great Depression's migratory effects led to the dispersal of jazz music, from New Orleans going north through Chicago and to New York. This led to the development of different styles in different cities. Due to its popularity in speakeasies and the emergence of advanced recording technology, jazz's popularity skyrocketed. It was also at the forefront of the minimal integration efforts going on at the time, as it united mostly black musicians with mostly white audiences. [155]

Alcohol production Edit

Making moonshine was an industry in the American South before and after Prohibition. In the 1950s muscle cars became popular and various roads became known as "Thunder Road" for their use by moonshiners. A popular ballad was created and the legendary drivers, cars, and routes were depicted on film in Thunder Road. [156] [157] [158] [159]

As a result of Prohibition, the advancements of industrialization within the alcoholic beverage industry were essentially reversed. Large-scale alcohol producers were shut down, for the most part, and some individual citizens took it upon themselves to produce alcohol illegally, essentially reversing the efficiency of mass-producing and retailing alcoholic beverages. Closing the country's manufacturing plants and taverns also resulted in an economic downturn for the industry. While the Eighteenth Amendment did not have this effect on the industry due to its failure to define an "intoxicating" beverage, the Volstead Act's definition of 0.5% or more alcohol by volume shut down the brewers, who expected to continue to produce beer of moderate strength. [114]

In 1930 the Prohibition Commissioner estimated that in 1919, the year before the Volstead Act became law, the average drinking American spent $17 per year on alcoholic beverages. By 1930, because enforcement diminished the supply, spending had increased to $35 per year (there was no inflation in this period). The result was an illegal alcohol beverage industry that made an average of $3 billion per year in illegal untaxed income. [160]

The Volstead Act specifically allowed individual farmers to make certain wines "on the legal fiction that it was a non-intoxicating fruit-juice for home consumption", [161] and many did so. Enterprising grape farmers produced liquid and semi-solid grape concentrates, often called "wine bricks" or "wine blocks". [162] This demand led California grape growers to increase their land under cultivation by about 700% during the first five years of Prohibition. The grape concentrate was sold with a "warning": "After dissolving the brick in a gallon of water, do not place the liquid in a jug away in the cupboard for twenty days, because then it will turn into wine". [26]

The Volstead Act allowed the sale of sacramental wine to priests and ministers and allowed rabbis to approve sales of sacramental wine to individuals for Sabbath and holiday use at home. Among Jews, four rabbinical groups were approved, which led to some competition for membership, since the supervision of sacramental licenses could be used to secure donations to support a religious institution. There were known abuses in this system, with imposters or unauthorized agents using loopholes to purchase wine. [58] [163]

Prohibition had a notable effect on the alcohol brewing industry in the United States. Wine historians note that Prohibition destroyed what was a fledgling wine industry in the United States. Productive, wine-quality grapevines were replaced by lower-quality vines that grew thicker-skinned grapes, which could be more easily transported. Much of the institutional knowledge was also lost as winemakers either emigrated to other wine-producing countries or left the business altogether. [164] Distilled spirits became more popular during Prohibition. [89] Because their alcohol content was higher than that of fermented wine and beer, spirits were often diluted with non-alcoholic drinks. [89]


Partisan prophets a history of the Prohibition Party, 1854-1972,

This is a copyrighted publication from 1972. However I have decided to upload it in the context of the following article:

Prohibition Party Will Give Away Copies of “Partisan Prophets” to Those Who Will Make Good Use of The Book
November 1st, 2009

Jim Hedges, a leader of the Prohibition Party, has custody of 65 copies of the book, “Partisan Prophets: A History of the Prohibition Party 1854-1970″, written by Roger Storms. The Prohibition Party Executive Committee has given him authority to give them away to anyone who can establish that the person will use the book himself or herself (for scholarly purposes) also, the party will also give copies free to public libraries. Hedges asks that interested persons contact him by postal letter, at Box 212, Needmore Pa 17238.

Roger Storms was a leader of the Prohibition Party in Maine during the 1970′s. Under his leadership, the party overcame the Maine petition requirement of 10,920 valid signatures in 1976, and was able to place its presidential candidate, Ben Bubar, on the Maine ballot. Bubar received .72% of the presidential vote in Maine, and some party members were elected to non-partisan office in Maine. Storms was killed in an auto accident in the late 1970′s, and the party never again appeared on the ballot in Maine.


I have attempted to contact Mr. Hedges both by e-mail and regular mail, with no response. Nevertheless I feel that uploading the text here for educational, non-profit purposes is covered by the decision of the the Prohibition National Committee to give the book away to individuals and libraries "for scholarly purposes".

UPDATE: Today I have received a letter (a real typed paper letter, they apparently still make them) from Mr. Hedges on Partisan Prohibition Historical Society letterhead giving me permission to scan and upload the book. He said "our current policy is to give them away to anyone who can use them".


PROHIBITION PARTY

los PROHIBITION PARTY in Cleveland was organized in 1869 when local TEMPERANCE Republicans led by Geo. P. Burwell nominated a slate of candidates for the Mar. 1869 municipal elections, including Grove Abbey. Abbey received 1,049 votes, approximately 9% of the total votes cast for mayor. It was believed to be the first distinctively Prohibition ticket offered to the voters anywhere in the country. Both state and national Prohibition parties were organized later in 1869. Although the party sought the legal prohibition of the manufacture, transport, and sale of alcoholic beverages, it did not neglect moral suasion as a way to induce sobriety. While the party attracted few votes in subsequent local elections, it continued to run candidates for city office until the end of the century.

Cleveland was host to the national Prohibition party conventions held in 1876 and 1880. At its 1876 national convention, the party identified itself not only with Prohibition but with a wide program of other social reforms, including the suppression of lotteries, the abolition of polygamy, prison reform, and universal suffrage. Green Clay Smith of Kentucky was nominated as the Prohibition candidate for president. The 1880 national convention in Cleveland nominated Neal Dow of Portland, ME, for president. This time, however, the party's platform limited itself to Prohibition and universal suffrage. Although Ohio's Prohibition party grew in influence statewide, it was not a significant force among the diverse cultures that populated Cuyahoga County.

Case, George L. The Prohibition Party, Its Organization, Growth, and Purpose (1889), WRHS.


Rumrunners and bootleggers

Criminals looked at the new law and saw an opportunity for profit. The United States was surrounded by nations that made spirits: Canada had whisky, and the Caribbean had rum. To sneak alcohol into the U.S. market, all a bootlegger needed was money, transportation, and muscle. Thousands of "thirsty" American customers would pay higher prices for booze, so potential profits were massive.

Bootleggers operated in cities across the United States. In Detroit the Purple Gang controlled local distribution coming in from Canada. In New York Italian immigrants formed the Five Families and kept the city “wet.” Charles “Lucky” Luciano became New York’s top bootlegger by working with boss Arnold Rothstein and gangsters like Dutch Schultz.

In Chicago Al “Scarface” Capone and Johnny Torrio formed “The Outfit” to control liquor distribution in the city. Capone grew rich off of crime: Some sources put his estimated annual income as high as $60 million. As operations expanded and became more complex, gangsters began to organize. They hired more people: lawyers, brewers, boat captains, and truckers. They purchased defunct breweries and began cooking up their own “hooch” for sale.

A New Age for Women

The 1920s were an exciting time for American women who gained the right to vote when the 19th Amendment was passed shortly after Prohibition went into effect. In the cities, more young women were entering the workforce and enjoying the independence urban life afforded them, including enjoying a drink in mixed company at a local speakeasy. As it became clear that Prohibition was failing, many women became politically involved in repealing it. The Molly Pitcher Club, the Women’s Organization for National Prohibition Reform, and the Women’s Moderation Union all lobbied against the 18th Amendment until it was repealed in December 1933.

Crime families initially limited activity to their local area, but rivalries and conflict soon broke out as they sought to expand. Rivalries often resulted in violence: shootings, bombings, and murders. Capone’s taste for violence was notorious, and he consolidated control over bootlegging in Chicago by killing his enemies.

The most famous incident associated with him was the St. Valentine’s Day Massacre in February 1929. Seven men in the Irish mob were shot in a garage on Chicago’s North Side. Many believe Capone ordered the murders to eliminate his rival Bugs Moran.


7. Bim, Babe, or Broad = A Woman

If that doesn&rsquot look like the happiest man in all the world then we don&rsquot who is. His name is Jimmy Durante, and he&rsquos an entertainer in a time when entertainment went underground. Some of the most iconic speakeasys emerged in cities such as Chicago and New York during the era.

A speakeasy might be something as simple as a side-room serving bathtub gin, but there were big ones such as New York City&rsquos 21 Club, which still survives today. The upscale, swanky night club brought in some of the most famous people of the era, including Ernest Hemingway and F. Scott Fitzgerald.


Prohibition Party

During the late 1800s, support for Prohibition—“the outlawing of alcohols manufacture, transportation, and consumption”—gained tremendous support in the United States. Many throughout the country believed that society was in moral decline. As people moved from rural areas to urbanized ones, a number of Americans believed that they were losing touch with their religious values. They felt that one way that people were violating God’s desires was by consuming alcohol.

In 1869, a group of American citizens concerned with alcohol consumption formed the Prohibition Party. This political party ran some candidates for office at local, state and federal levels however, it typically simply endorsed candidates that it found acceptable from among the larger political parties. Usually these candidates were members of the Republican Party. Between 1869 and the passage of the Eighteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, which enacted Prohibition in 1919, the Prohibition Party played a role in every state election in Ohio. Although the party began as a small organization, it grew quickly with the support of other anti-alcohol groups, such as the Ohio Anti-Saloon League and the Progressives. Upon Prohibition’s enactment in 1919, the Prohibition Party ceased to play a role in United States politics.


Prohibición

The prohibition movement influenced Texas and American politics from the 1840s to the 1930s. In the nineteenth century a movement against alcoholic beverages arose when some Americans, appalled by the social damage and individual wreckage that alcohol consumption too often seemed to cause, sought to persuade citizens to refrain from drinking liquor. This "temperance" movement enjoyed considerable success and continued parallel with the prohibition movement. In the eyes of some reformers a sober America was attainable only under laws that declared illegal the manufacture and sale of liquor. In their view the profit motive led the distilling, brewing, and saloon industries to encourage more people to drink. The destruction of the legal liquor traffic appeared to be the solution of a widespread individual and social problem. Prohibition sentiment found ready partisans among fundamentalist Protestants in Texas. Fundamentalists had long taught that drinking is immoral, and many of them came to believe that state-enforced teetotalism would improve public morality. In this regard, during the prohibition era at least, fundamentalists contributed to the extension of state power. Legal prohibition would, they thought, conduce to greater freedom. In subsequent years, however, in spite of this temporary alliance with political liberalism, and in spite of continuing opposition to alcohol sales and consumption, fundamentalists demonstrated a staunch conservatism.

Drys, as the reformers were called, first animated Texas politics in the 1840s. The drys sought measures allowing voters in prescribed areas to declare prohibition in effect: to pass so-called local-option laws for neighborhoods, towns, cities, and counties. Eventually the drys sought statewide prohibition and an amendment to the United States Constitution declaring illegal the manufacture and sale of alcoholic beverages. In 1843 the Republic of Texas had passed what may have been the first local-option measure in North America. A Texas law of 1845 banned saloons altogether. The law was never enforced, however, and was repealed in 1856. The prohibition controversy, however, did not disappear in either Texas or the nation. The United Friends of Temperance, the first Texas-wide dry organization, was formed around 1870. In 1883 the state branch of the Woman's Christian Temperance Union was founded with help from the national WCTU leader, Frances Willard. There was a separate black WCTU for the state. In 1886 the Prohibition party offered candidates for office in Texas. The new Constitution of 1876 had required the legislature to enact a local-option law. In 1887 the drys engineered a state prohibition referendum, which they lost by more than 90,000 votes. Nevertheless, dry sentiment was widespread. In 1895, fifty-three of the 239 counties were dry, and another seventy-nine counties were partly dry under local option.

In the twentieth century the prohibition movement advanced from the rural counties of North Texas to convert a majority of the state's voters. As before, the liquor industries opposed the measure with well-financed publicity and well-placed financing of political leaders. In 1903 the Home and State began to counteract liquor publicity, and the Texas Local Option Association united dry groups. That association merged in 1908 with the state Anti-Saloon League , which had appeared in 1907. The league, formed in Ohio in 1893, was bringing new zeal and organizing skills to the dry campaign around the United States. In Texas the drys in 1908 and 1911 tried again for a prohibition law but lost the referendum by a close margin. Although the statewide dry campaigns had failed, the number of dry counties was increasing. North Texas was dry only areas with relatively large concentrations of African, Hispanic, and German Americans continued to license the liquor industries.

With the electorate split on the issue, prohibition continued to divide Texans. In 1913 Morris Sheppard , a dedicated dry, won a seat in the United States Senate and assumed leadership in the national prohibition campaign by his sponsorship of what became the Eighteenth Amendment. In 1916 the drys won enough congressional races to have Congress initiate the national prohibition amendment. The Texas legislature, encouraged by the Anti-Saloon League (which was reorganized in 1915 under Arthur J. Barton to provide sustained support for state prohibition), ratified the federal amendment in 1918. In 1919 Texas voters approved a state prohibition amendment.

Prohibition was controversial in both national and Texas politics in the 1920s. The Anti-Saloon League was deeply divided over the question of how to use the Eighteenth Amendment: as a measure providing new opportunities to persuade Americans to abstain from liquor, or as a measure demanding strict enforcement. In Texas, Atticus Webb, who assumed leadership of the state league, failed to obtain strict enforcement. In 1925 opponents of prohibition were in control of the Texas government and refused to support enforcement. In the meantime, the drys were unable to obtain funds for a large-scale, sustained educational campaign on behalf of abstinence. Nationally, popular support for prohibition receded dramatically after the onset of the Great Depression in 1929, and in 1933 the Twenty-first Amendment repealed prohibition. In 1935 Texas voters ratified a repeal of the state dry law. Thereafter the prohibition question reverted to the local level, and the drys had available only local-option statutes.

In the 1980s a neoprohibition movement emerged in the United States. The reformers sought not to outlaw the liquor industries but more closely to regulate their marketing campaigns. In 1984, for instance, Congress required Texas and all other states to declare the minimum drinking age to be twenty-one in order to receive full federal highway funding. Subsequently, "warning labels" stating the dangers of alcohol consumption were mandated.


Ver el vídeo: Comerciales cigarrillos Uruguay Años 80s hasta la prohibición de publicidad (Agosto 2022).

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